1.1 Introduction to Language and Culture Evolution of Culture &…
1.1 Introduction to Language and Culture
Evolution of Culture & Society
Hunting & Gathering
The way human life around 11000 to 12000 years ago.
Early human societies depended upon environment.
They had to relocate new area where resources were plentiful when animals left the area, plants died & rivers dried up.
Relies on hunting, fishing & foraging.
Survive only in isolated area such as deserts, frozen tundra &dense rain forests.
The Hadza people of Tanzania rely on hunting and requires great skills in tracking, teamwork & accuracy with a bow and arrow
Machine manufacturing & mechanization do not exist
Goods are produced for the consumption & survival of one's family group
Produced by family for the family
Practice of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock
Plantation sector - dominated by Europeans - specialised in commercial crops - exp: rubber, palm oil
Smallholder sector - owned by Malays - Chinese and Indians grew crops on small plots
Inherited an economy largely based on the export (yin & rubber)
Oil palm cultivation (strong export demand for vegetable oils)
Led by rubber and palm oil
Pastoral & Horticultural
• Larger than Hunting & Gathering Society
• Both Pastoral and Horticultural have more inequality and greater conflict.
Greater inequality in terms of gender and wealth.
• Both Developed 10,000 – 12,000 years ago.
Manage to produce a surplus food from vegetable and animal.
Allow them to trade foods with others society
Allow them to have a larger popular
Leads to disputes and even fighting over land and animals
The Differences Between Pastoral & Horticultural
Raise live stock
Nomadic (Need to move frequently to take care of the animal.)
Wealth stems from the number of animals a family own.
Crows crop with simple tools
Less nomadic (Able to maintain the fertility of the land.)
Wealth stem from the amount of land a family owns