Industrialization (Reforming the Industrial World (Marxism: Radical…
Reforming the Industrial World
Marxism: Radical Socialism
The Future According to Marx
wealth. The large proletariat would revolt, seize the
factories and mills from the capitalists, and produce what society needed.
Published in 1848, The Communist Manifesto produced few short-term results.
Though widespread revolts shook Europe during 1848 and 1849,
Marx and Engels stated
their belief that economic forces alone dominated society.
Labor Unions and Reform Laws
Skilled workers led the way in forming unions because
their special skills gave them extra bargaining power.
In the United States, skilled workers had belonged to unions since the early
The new law made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old.
Children from the ages of 9 to 12 could not work more than 8 hours a day.
In 1919, the U.S. Supreme Court objected to a
federal child labor law, ruling that it interfered with
states’ rights to regulate labor.
The Communist Manifesto
In their manifesto, Marx and
Engels argued that human societies have always been
divided into warring classes. In their own time,
wealthy controlled the means of producing goods, the poor
performed backbreaking labor under terrible conditions.
The Reform Movement Spreads
The Fight for Women’s Rights
Women led reform movements to address this and other pressing social issues.
These community centers served the poor residents
of slum neighborhoods.
Reforms Spread to Many Areas of Life
One of the most prominent U.S. reformers, Horace Mann
of Massachusetts, favored free public education for all chil-
In 1831, French writer Alexis de Tocqueville had con-
trasted the brutal conditions in American prisons to the
“extended liberty” of American society.
The Reform Movement Spreads
Not until 1888 did Brazil’s huge
enslaved population win freedom.
In the United States the movement to fulfill the promise of the Declaration of
Independence by ending slavery grew in the early 1800s.
The Rise of Socialism
Others reformers took an even more active approach shocked by the misery and poverty of the working class a british factory owner named rovert owne improved working conditions for his employes
He intended this community to be a utopia or a perfect living placd
In socialism, the factors of production are
owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
Socialists argued that the government should plan
the economy rather than depend on free-market capitalism to do the job.
English philosopher Jermey Bentham modified the ideas of Adam Smith.
John Stuart Mill, a philosopher and economis, led the utilitarian movement in the 1800s;
The Philosophers of Industrialization
The Economist of Capitilism
These ideas also helped bring about the Industrial Revolution
Smiths basic ideas were supported by british economist Thomas Malthus and David ricardo
Smith’s arguments supporting free
enterprise rested on what he called the three natural laws of economics:
Rather, if government allowed free trade—the flow of commerce in the
world market without government regulation—the
Continental Europe Industrializes
Expansion Elsewhere in Europe
In France, sustained industrial growth occurred after 1830.
For a variety of reasons, many European countries did not industrialize.
1835, Germany began to copy the British model.
Most important, Germany built railroads that linked its
growing manufacturing cities, such as Frankfurt, with the
Ruhr Valley’s coal and iron ore deposits.
Beginnings in Belgium
Carrying the latest British advances,
more British workers came to work with Cockerill.
Samuel Slater had smuggled the design of a spinning
machine to the United States.
The Impact of Industrialization
Rise of Global Inequality
Imperialism was born out of the cycle of industrialization,
the need for resources to supply the factories of Europe,
Britain led in exploiting its overseas colonies for resources
Transformation of Society
expectancy. Despite the hardships early urban work-
ers suffered, population, health, and wealth eventually rose dramatically in all
Between 1700 and 1900, revolutions in agriculture,
production, transportation, and communication changed the lives of people
Industrial Revolution in the United States
Later expansion of u.S. industry
During the last third of the 1800s, the
country experienced a technological boom.
By the end of the 1800s, a few large, powerful companies controlled more
than two-thirds of the nation’s railroad tracks.
The Rise of Corporations
Elements of a modern economic system developed dur-
ing the Industrial Revolution.
In the United States as elsewhere, workers earned low wages for laboring long hours,
Industrialization in the United States
Slater built a spinning machine
from memory and a partial design.
In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell of Boston
and four other investors revolutionized the
American textile industry.
In 1789, however, a young British mill worker named Samuel
Slater emigrated to the United States.