Absolutism Concept Map C.21 (Spain's Empire and European Absolutism (A…
Absolutism Concept Map C.21
Central European Monarchs Class
Thirty Years War
Bohemian Protestants Revolve
The Holy Roman Emperors, Ferdinand II, closed protestant churches so the protestants, distrusting of him to begin with, revolted in protest, Ferdinand sent an army into Bohemia to strop revolts.
Two Phases of the Thirty Years war
The Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain defeated many of the protestant armies and stopped the Czechs uprising.
In 1960, Protestant Gustavas Adolphus of Sweden and his army drove the Hapsburg armies out of northern Germany.
Peace (treaty) of Westphalia
Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria.
Strengthened France by giving it German territory.
German princes independent of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Ended religious wars in Europe.
New method of peace negotiation, all participants meet in order to settle the problems of war and decide the terms of peace.
This treaty ended the idea of a Catholic Empire ruling most of Europe. It recognized Europe as a group of equal independent states, this was the beginning of the modern state system and the most important result of the Thirty Years War
States form in Central Europe
The landowning aristocracy in Central Europe depended on serfs therefore they passed laws to prevent freedom and rights of serfs
Weak Empires and rulers
Polish nobility elected a polish king yet limited his income, power and army. Leaving no strong ruler to form a unified state
The Ottoman Empire began to decline in power despite Suleyman the Magnificent conquering Hungary in 1529
The Holy Roman Empire lost all power in the Thirty Years war, and without control of German States.
Prussia Challenges Austria
Frederick William, or Frederick the Great gained the title of elector, and built an army to protect their land and themselves , they also moved into absolutions monarch
Maria Theresa became allies with Austria Chiefs, hearing of this Frederick the Great signed a treaty with Britain (former allies of Austria). Frederick attacked an ally of Austria which started the sevens year war
Spain's Empire and European Absolutism
A Powerful Spanish Empire
-Philip II created/ inherited his own empire after hos father died. The empire provided him with wealth. Philip defended Catholicism and sent a fleet but it as defeated.
Golden Age of Spanish are and Literature
Absolute monarchs: kings or queens who held all of the power within their states’ boundaries. Their goal was to control every aspect pf society. Absolute monarchs believed in divine right the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God’s representative on Earth.An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.
The Spanish Empire Weakens
-El Greco painted many art pieces that represented his deep catholic faith of spain. Diego Velasquez paintings reflected his pride for the Spanish monarchy. Publication of Don Quixote de la mancha.
The Independent Dutch Prosper
-Dutch art was very popular. Rembrandt van Rijn was the most famous dutch painter. was Jan Vermeer was another popular artist.The stability of the government allowed the Dutch people
to concentrate on economic growth.
Absolutism in Europe
Inflation and taxes were big problems for everyone.Guilds that had emerged in
the Middle Ages still dominated business in Spain.
Absolute Powers of Russia
The First Czar
Ivan the Terrible began is bad ruling era in 1560
Rise of the Romanovs
Peter the Great comes to power
Russia and Europe begin to disagree
Peter the Great visits western Europe
Peter Rules Absolutely
Peter the Great lists has reforms
Establishing St. Petersburg
2 - The Reign of Louis XIV
Religious Wars and Power Struggles
Edict of Nantes - He declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities.
Cardinal Richelieu became, in effect, the
ruler of France.
Richelieu took two steps to increase the power of the
First, he moved against Huguenots. He believed that Protestantism often served as an excuse for political conspiracies against the Catholic king. Although Richelieu did not take away the Huguenots’ right to worship,he forbade Protestant cities to have walls. He did not want them to be able to defy the king and then withdraw behind strong defenses.
Second, he sought to weaken the nobles’ power. Richelieu
ordered nobles to take down their fortified castles.
Writers Turn Toward Skepticism
French thinkers had witnessed the religious wars with horror. What they saw turned them toward skepticism,
Michel de Montaigne lived during the worst years of
the French religious wars.
Another French writer of the time, René Descartes, was a brilliant thinker.
Louis XIV Comes to Power
The efforts of Henry IV and Richelieu to strengthen the French monarchy paved the way for the most powerful ruler
in French history—Louis XIV.
he increased the power of the government agents called intendants, who collected
taxes and administered justice.
Jean Baptiste Colbert believed in
the theory of mercantilism.