Sociology: Education - Summary Map (Class Internal (Labelling (Becker)…
Sociology: Education - Summary Map
Setting and Streaming
Definition: Attaching a meaning or definition to them. Eg a teacher may label a student as intelligent.
Douglas, 1964: Argues that parents' education can affect children's achievement. He found that working-class families placed less value on education. This meant that they were less ambitious for their children, they were less encouraging and took less interest in their education. They were less likely to visit the school (eg parents' evening) and they were less likely to discuss their child's progress with their teacher. This means that working-class children have lower levels of motivation.
How parents' education affects education and success: Due to the lack of emphasis put in education working-class children may be less motivated and therefore may not put in effort in their classwork and their exams meaning that they do not reach the higher grades. Similarly, as middle-class parents are better educated, they may be able to offer advice and help with homework meaning children are better prepared for their work.
How does this benefit Middle-class students: Their parents, who may be better educated, are more likely more able to help their children through the education system eg help them with homework and help them with work they are stuck on. This means that they have more opportunities to succeed. Also, if they are more motivated then they are likely to put more effort into school work and are more likely to revise.
Ways that parents' education can affect children
Parents' educational behaviours
Educated parents are aware of what is needed for their child to succeed so are more able to help them. This means that they are more likely to perform tasks such as reading with their children, teaching them letters, helping with homework and being actively involved in their schooling.
Educated parents are also more able to get expert advice on childrearing and are more successful at establishing good relationships with teachers and are better at helping their children's interactions at school. They realise the importance of trips to the library and educational trips eg to museums.
Use of income
Educated parents' parenting style is focused on discipline and high expectations, this supports achievement by encouraging active learning and exploration.
Less educated parents are likely to use inconsistent methods of discipline which includes 'doing as you are told' which does not allow learning independence skills and self-control which leads to poor motivation and problems interacting with the teachers.
Class, income and parental education
Feinstein, 2008: found the same thing and that Middle-class parents tend to be better educated so can socialise their children in a certain way.
Basil Bernstein, 1975: He researched how different social classes talk and how this affects their education and achievement. He identified two codes.
Elaborate code: Typically used by middle-class students. Includes a wider vocabulary and more complex sentences. Their speech is more varied and they may talk about more abstract ideas. These are context-free and the listener does not need to have shared the same experiences. There speech may include analysis
Example: Parents may say/use language like "What makes you think that". This allows children to evaluate their ideas. This leads to their cognitive development.
Restricted code: Typically used by working-class students. Often uses simple vocabulary, unfinished sentences and grammatically simple sentences. Speech will be predictable and may include one word or even just a gesture. It is only descriptive and does not include analysis. It is context-bound and assumes the listen has shared experiences.
Example: Working-class parents may say "What animal is that?" which leads to little thought process as children do not have to evaluate their ideas and it allows children to give a one-word answer.
How the codes affected education and success: Those who speak with the elaborate code are more likely to use the language required to reach the higher grades. It is also the language used in textbook and by teachers. It is believed to be the 'correct' way to speak and write. Bernstein also believes that it allows thoughts to be expressed clearly.
How does this benefit Middle-class students: They are socialised speaking like this meaning that they are already better prepared for the language used at school. This means they feel 'at home' at school so are able to succeed. However, working-class students are lacking this code. They may be likely to feel excluded and be less successful.
Evaluation: Some argue that he is a cultural deprivation theorists because he believes Working-class speech is inadequate. Bernstein recognises that the school also impacts a child's achievement. He argues that working-class students do not fail because they are culturally deprived but because the school fail to teach them the elaborate code.
In-class evaluation: Working-class students can learn the elaborated code and use it in exams. Similarly, there are examples of people who have been very successful but speak with the restricted code eg Lord Sugar. Also, sometimes the restricted code can be better eg simpler and it can be better for things such as comedy and some find it endearing.
The Role of Education
Attitudes and Values
Family Structure and Parental Support
Girls (Over Achievement)
Boys (Under Achievement)
Educational Policy and Inequality