Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture (TYPES OF FARMING (Primitive Subsistence…
Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture
Two thirds of the country's working population is engaged in agriculture
They can be used as food, raw material. Some (tea, coffee, spices) are even exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Over these years, cultivation practices have been changing significantly depending on characteristics of physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming depends on monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions.
It is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools such as: hoe, Dao, digging sticks and family or community labour.
It is a slash-and-burn agriculture. Thermos clear all about of land and produce cereals and other food crops. When the soil fertility decreases, they shift and clear the fresh patch of land for cultivation.
They rely on the environment to replenish the soil fertility
The land productivity is low.
It is known as
in the north-eastern States like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland. It is known as Pamou Manipur and Dips in bastar district of chhattisgarh and Andaman and nicobar Islands.
Intensive subsistence farming
This is labour-intensive farming where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher output.
Do you do that right of inheritance, the land has been divided to such an extent that it has become uneconomical perform agriculture on. Farmers put enormous pressure on agricultural land to earn a living.
In this type of farming, higher doses of modern inputs such as hyv seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides are used to obtain a higher productivity.
The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from region to region. Ex. Rice = commercial in Haryana but subsistence crop in Odisha
These are the type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown over a large area.
They are similar to industries because the required capital intensive inputs, cover large tracts of land and uses migrant labourers.
All the producers used as raw material and their respective industries.
Imp ex. Tea (Assam and West Bengal) coffee (Karnataka), rubber, sugarcane and banana
Since production is for markets, a well-developed network of transport and communication and processing industries play an important role in development of plantations.
Sown: June - July (onset of monsoon)
Harvested: September- October
Important Kharif crops = rice, maize, jowar, bajra, moong, urad and soyabean
Some important rice growing states are Assam, W.B, A.P, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra (Konkan coast)
In Assam, W.B and Odisha, three crops of paddy (Aus, Aman, Boro) are grown in a year.
Sown: October to December (Winter)
Harvested: April to June (Summer)
Important rabi crops = wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard
States from north and N.W are important for production of wheat and other Rabi crops.
The western temperate cyclones cause precipitation and are the reason for the success of these crops.
Irrigation (introduced during Green Revolution) also helped
This season comes between the Rabi and Kharif seasons
Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are grown in this season
BHOODAN - GRAMDAN
Vinoba Bhave (Gandhi Ji's spiritual heir) started this 'Bloodless revolution'
Bhoodan = Donating land among landless farmers / labourers
Gramdan : offering to distribute some villages among the landless
AGRICULTURE AND ECONOMY
The decline in the share of GDP of agriculture (since 1951) is concerning because the implications may affect other spheres of the economy and our society.
More than half the people are employed in the agricultural sector.
Government has made efforts to modernize agriculture.
Read the following from T.B.
Technological and institutional reforms