Body Systems : (Respiratory System (Major Structures (Larynx (Commonly…
Body Systems :
The main function of the respiratory system are to obtain oxygen from the external environment and supply it to the cells.
To remove from the body the carbon dioxide produced by cellular metabolism.
Commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
It is an integral part of the body's airway and has the vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration.
For the digestive system, its muscular walls function in the process of swallowing, and it serves as a pathway for the movement of food from the mouth to the esophagus.
The bronchi, singularly known as a bronchus, are extensions of the windpipe that shuttle air to and from the lungs.
The main function of the lungs is the process of gas exchange called respiration.
A respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.
A condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness.
Lung inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infection, in which the air sacs fill with pus and may become solid.
How to care for the Respiratory System
Stop smoking and stay away from secondhand smoke.
Avoid indoor and outdoor air pollution.
Avoid exposure to people who have the flu or other viral infections.
Supports the body
Protects internal organs
Produces blood cells
Stores and releases minerals and fat
Function of the skull is to protect the brain from injury.
Function of the pelvis is to support the weight of the upper body when sitting and to transfer this weight to the lower limbs when standing. It serves as an attachment point for the trunk and lower limb muscles and also protects the internal pelvic organs.
Function of the vertebrae is to protect the spinal cord.
The function of the ribs is to enclose and protect the heart and lungs. It provides a strong framework onto which the muscles of the shoulder girdle, chest, upper abdomen and back can attach.
The function is supporting the weight of the body and allowing motion of the leg.
Diseases of the Skeletal System
Osteoporosis: This is a disease in which the bones become fragile and prone to fracture.
Leukemia: This is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Osteomalacia: Similar to osteoporosis, these are other types of bone loss.
How to care for the Skeletal System
Eat lots of vegetables. Vegetables are the best source of Vitamin C, which stimulates production of bone-forming cells.
Perform strength training.
Get your bone mineral density tested.
Help you breath(respiration)
The pectorals are predominantly used to control the movement of the arm, with the contractions of the pectoralis major pulling on the humerus to create lateral, vertical, or rotational motion. The pectorals also play a part in deep inhalation, pulling the ribcage to create room for the lungs to expand.
The main function of the triceps muscle is to extend the forearm at the elbow joint, which means it functions to straighten the arm.
The function bicep is to flex the elbow and rotate the forearm.
The function of abdominal muscles is to allow movement and hold the organs in place, also to keep your body balanced and stable.
The gluteus maximus muscle is responsible for movement of the hip and thigh.
Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that weaken the muscular system and make it harder to move. The diseases are usually progressive - they get worse over time - and affect proteins causing the death of muscle cells.
Tendinosis is a degenerative disease that causes tendons to break down and form scar tissue when the tendons are no longer able to repair themselves after an injury. There are many commonly used treatments, but they're not very effective.
Fybromyalgia syndrome is basically wide spread chronic pain. It is often resistant to treatment and so the focus is usually on learning on how to live with the issue.
How to take care of the system.
Warm Up and Cool Down. Before beginning any sort of physical activity, it's crucial to spend 10-20 minutes warming up.
Stretch. Spending 10-15 minutes stretching your main muscle groups can drastically reduce muscle tears.
Have a healthy diet, emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products like milk, cheese, and yogurt.
To collect sensory input from the body and external environment.
To process and interpret the sensory input.
To respond appropriately to the sensory input.
The function of the nerves is to connect the internal organs with the rest of the body.
Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) controls most functions of the body and mind.
It controls thought, behavior, emotions, and memory, as well as basic life functions such as breathing and heart rate.
Its three major roles are to relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body, to perform an action, to pass along messages from sensory receptors to the brain, and to coordinate reflexes that are managed by the spinal cord alone.
It functionss like relay stations - one nerve enters and an other exits.
Parkinsons disease- a degenerative disease that progressively destroys nerve cells in the area of the brain that controls skeletal muscles. No known cause cure!
Uncontrolled tremors and extreme rigidity
Multiple sclerosis- destroys the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cells in the CNS
-Causes loss of voluntary control of your muscles
-Gets worse with each attack
Epilepsy- sudden episodes of uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain that produces mild to severe seizures. -Caused by brain damage before during childbirth
-infections, head trauma, withdrawal from drugs alcohol
How to take care of the Nervous System
Eat a balanced diet. A balanced, low-fat diet with ample sources of vitamins B6, B12, and folate will help protect the nervous system.
Drink plenty of water and other fluids.
Transport of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic wastes.
Protection of the body by white blood cells, antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the body against foreign microbes and toxins.
Regulation of body temperature, fluid pH, and water content of cells.
The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.
Function to transport blood throughout the body.
Transfer of oxygen and other nutrients from the bloodstream to other tissues in the body.
They are responsible for returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
An artery is a vessel that carries blood away from the heart and toward other tissues and organs.
Aneurysm, a bulge or enlargement in an artery that can rupture and bleed
Ischemic stroke, in which a blood clot moves to the brain and causes damage
Heart attack, or a sudden blockage to the heart’s blood flow and oxygen supply
How to take care of the Cardiovascular System
Exercise a minimum of 30 minutes a day, most days of the week.
Avoid trans fats and saturated fats, which are often found in processed foods and fast food.
Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair
Digestion works by moving food through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The esophagus serves to pass food and liquids from the mouth down to the stomach.
The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.
The main function of the small intestine is absorption of nutrients and minerals from food.
The 4 major functions of the large intestine are recovery of water and electrolytes, formation and storage of faeces and fermentation of some of the indigestible food matter by bacteria.
The rectum is the last stop before the feces is eliminated through the anal canal.
Diverticulosis/diverticulitis – Small pouches may form along the walls of the large intestine called diverticuli which if symptomatic, causing discomfort to the patient.
Gallstones are hard deposits that form in your gallbladder — a small, pear-shaped sack that stores and secretes bile for digestion.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). When stomach acid backs up into your esophagus — a condition called acid reflux — you may feel a burning pain.
How to take care of the Digestive System
Get both insoluble and soluble fiber.
Drink lots of water.
Eat on schedule.
The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
Its main function is to secrete hormones into your bloodstream.
It helps to regulate many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream.
Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions.
The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.
The thymus serves a vital role in the training and development of T-lymphocytes or T cells, an extremely important type of white blood cell.
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of the body.
Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland, and the the thyroid gland can't make enough thyroid hormone to keep the body running normally.
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive and makes excessive amounts of thyroid hormone.
How to take care of the Endocrine System
Get 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night.
It is best advised to avoid junk food as it won’t do any good to your body. Excess amounts of sugar, alcohol, and even excess caffeine all weaken the liver and the adrenal glands causing unhealthy hormone function.
When people suffer from chronic stress, the HPA axis -- hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal -- is constantly activated, producing a stress hormone called cortisol. Maintaining excessive levels of cortisol can have extremely detrimental effects on the body.