Long-Term Causes of the Spanish Civil War (Political Issues (The army…
Long-Term Causes of the Spanish Civil War
Minimal difference between two main parties - Conservatives and Liberals.
Elections were rigged or decided by corruption.
Power remained in the hands of the wealthy oligarchs despite the king and appointed prime minister.
The army intervened in politics.
They were reputed as brutal, hugely expensive, and had to paid for via heavy taxation.
The upper class dominated the officer corps.
Their credibility had been undermined due to loss in Spanish-American War.
Politically, the army leaders were conservative
It developed in urban areas in the 19th century as PSOE: Spanish Socialist Party, but had
Moderate Socialists were led by Indalecio Prieto.
Radical Socialists were led by Largo Caballero.
Spanish Communist Party arose in 1917 after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
It was supported mainly by educated classes.
They were the major political group as they were popular in the countryside since they demanded for the
of land and managed to establish
(active in organizing strikes and protests) in some Spanish cities.
FAI: Spanish Anarchist Federation is a more extreme anarchist faction that carried out bombings and assassinations.
Anarchists did not engage in any democratic processes and wanted
The church promoted
The aristocracy and upper classes had close ties to the church: made up most of the clergymen and provided funding.
The church was popular in rural areas while urban areas resented its association with the aristocratic and wealthy elites.
The Catholic Church used its wealth and position to gain political and social influence: the state guaranteed it a position in education and economy.
Catalans and Basques had separate languages and cultures, independent churches, and industrialized their economies (20th century).
Economic strains between regional and central government.
Most of Spain's
(Catalans: textiles, iron, and coal; Baque: shipbuilding) were concentrated in the Catalan and Basque Regions.
The centralist state opposed demands for autonomy from Catalonia and the Basque Regions.
Political protests and strikes were met with suppression.
The Grandees owned the
(vast land estates in south and center Spain). In the north, peasants owned small plots of land that were only adequate for subsistence living standard.
Rural poor turned to radical groups like anarchists that demanded the redistribution of land.
Spain was a primarily agricultural economy.
It is highly inefficient and seasonal: rural workers had to migrate to find work and lived in poverty.
Civil Guard was used to quell the frequent rioting and disturbances.
Spain's need for economic modernization gave rise to unionism.
North had industrialized but there's a lack of reform and investment.
Unions advocated against the low standard of living (low wages), long hours, unregulated working conditions, poor housing, and limited or no welfare provision. But it was undermined by the migration of unemployed seasonal workers from the countryside.