Eye and the Endocrine System Alexandra Jones P.5 (Major…
Eye and the Endocrine System Alexandra Jones P.5
Major structures and
functions of the eye
Cornea - The outermost part of the eye which focuses light and also procects the eyes.
Retina - The part of the eye that has a light sesitive layer also converts images into electronical signals
Pupil - The opening of the iris.
Sclera - fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Rods- Low light
Cones - Bright light
Cillary Body- Controls shapes of lens
Lens - Focus light ray
Viteous Humor - jelly like fluid
Foreva - Small depression with high concentration
Choriod- Dark pigment.
Aqueous Humor - water fluid behind cornea
Diseases associated with the eye
Astigmatism - unequal curvatures
Hyperopia - parallel light rays focused behind the retina. Can see distant obj. well but close items appear blurry.
Glaucoma - damage to the optic nerve causes progressive loss... eventually leads to blindness
Color Blindness - One or more cone types
Cataracts- clouding of the ens
Major functions of the endocrine system
Works with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis
Hormones diffuse into the bloodstream to act on specific target cells.
Major glands/organs and their functions
The hypothalamus produces hormones stored in the posterior pituitary and hormones affect the anterior pituitary.
The pituitary gland secretes numerous hormones, some of which stimulates other endocrine glands
Pineal Gland secretes melatonin, regulating sleep cycles, alertness,and temperature.
The thyroid gland is inferior to the larynx and is shield-shaped. It controls the metabolic rate and decreases calcium levels in the blood.
The parathyroid gland are on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormones, increasing blood calcium levels.
Pancreas such as insulin and glucagon regulate blood sugar levels.
The adrenal gland are Superior to the kidney producing epinephrine and hormones that control mineral balance inflammation and metabolic functions.
Testosterone a hormone of the testes, and metabolic functions.
Estrogen and progesterone produced in the ovaries regulate the female reproductive system.
names of the hormones produced and their target organs along with functions of the hormones
The first hormone is growth hormones which targets many cells and its major function is to help you grow and repair. The 2nd is Thyroid stimulating hormones which targets the thyroid gland and stimulation of the thyroid gland. The 3rd hormone is the adrenocrticotropic hormone which targets the adrenal gland and stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its hormones. The 4th hormone is the lactation which target in the breast and makes the breast milk. The 5th hormone is the follicle stimulating hormones which is the female and male eggs and stimles cells to produce gametes. The 6th hormone is the luteinizing hormone which in the the female estogen and testosterone in male the produce the sex hormones.
the 1st hormone is the Antidiuretic Hormone which targets call is their kidneys and prevents water loss in the body by increasing the reuptake in kidneys and reducing blood flow to the sweat gland. The second hormone is oxytocin is in the breast and uterus which triggers uterine contraction during birth and releases milk during breast milk.
The first hormone is Thyroid Hormone which is in the body's metabolic it regulates the body's metabolic rate and increased cellular activity and energy usage in the body. Then the second one is calcitonin which targets the calcium ions than its major functions to reduce the concentration of calcium ions in the blood by aiding the absorption into the matrix of the bone.
the hormones parathyroid hormone target cell is the calcium ion which produce hormone.
The first hormone is cortisol in protein and lipids which breaks down protein and lipids to produce glucose. It also reduces inflammation and immune response. Then Aldosterone is the whole body that regulates the concentration of mineral ions in the body.
The celled Epinephrine target cell is an autonomic nevus system to increase the flow of blood to the brain and muscles to improve the flight or fight reflex
The hormones glucagon is the the muscle and liver cells. The major function breaks down the polyacrylamide glycogen to release glucose into bloodstream. Also insulin which is in the abdominal cavity which arsing blood glucose levels.
The hormone is the testosterone target cell is the scrotum of males which produces the androgen testosterone in males after the start of puberty.
First one is estrogen which targets the pelvic body cavity in women. The major functions produces the female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. Then the hormone is progesterone is in the pelvic body cavity in women and its major function is ovulation and pregnancy for developing humans.
The hormone id melanin which targets the posterior of the brain and protects the body from breakthroughs a person's entire life.
The hormone is thymine. Which targets the whole body. The major functions f the hormones protects the body from pathogens throughout a person's entire life.
Diseases associated with the endocrine system
Goiter - Lack of iodine- swelling of the thyroid.
Cretinism - dwarfism n which adults body porportion remains child-like
Graves Diseases- Autoimmune disorder causes hyperthyroid.
Diabetes - beta cells don't make insulin leading to blood sugar being too high.
Hyperthyroidism - genetic or tumor on thyroid. Causes high metabolic rate and rapid heart beat.