Eye and the Endocrine System//Haydee Adame p.7 (names of the hormones…
Eye and the Endocrine System//Haydee Adame p.7
Diseases associated with the eye
Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the physical disturbance of the center of the retina called the macula.
Bulging Eyes: Bulging eyes, or proptosis, occurs when one or both eyes protrude from the eye sockets due to space taking lesions such as swelling of the muscles, fat, and tissue behind the eye.
Cataracts: cataracts are a degenerative form of eye disease in which the lens gradually becomes opaque and vision mists over,cloudy lenses.
Optic Nerve Disorders: Glaucoma usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises and damages the optic nerve.Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve. Causes include infections and immune-related illnesses such as multiple sclerosis. Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. Causes include poor blood flow to the eye, disease, trauma, or exposure to toxic substances.
Retinal Disorders: The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. In the center of this nerve tissue is the macula. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving and seeing fine detail.Retinal disorders affect this vital tissue. They can affect your vision, and some can be serious enough to cause blindness.
Macular Degeneration: It does not hurt, but it causes cells in the macula to die. There are two types: wet and dry. Wet AMD happens when abnormal blood vessels grow under the macula. These new blood vessels often leak blood and fluid. Wet AMD damages the macula quickly. Blurred vision is a common early symptom. Dry AMD happens when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. Your gradually lose your central vision. A common early symptom is that straight lines appear crooked.
Diabetic Eye Problems: If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness in American adults.Your retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your retina.
Pinkeye: Conjunctivitis is the medical name for pink eye. It involves inflammation of the outer layer of the eye and inside of the eyelid. It can cause swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and redness.Infectious pink eye can easily spread from one person to another. The infection will clear in most cases without medical care, but bacterial pinkeye needs treatment with antibiotic eye drops or ointment.
Major functions of the endocrine system;:
The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function.
The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things
Major structures and
functions of the eye
Cornea: Light enters through the cornea, the transparent outer covering of the eye. The eyeball is rounded, so the cornea acts as a lens. It bends or refracts light.
Aqueous Humor: The fluid beneath the cornea has a composition similar to that of blood plasma. The aqueous humor helps to shape the cornea and provides nourishment to the eye.
Iris and Pupil: Light passes through the cornea and aqueous humor through an opening called the pupil. The size of the pupil is determined by the iris, the contractile ring that is associated with eye color. As the pupil dilates (gets bigger), more light enters the eye.
Lens: While most of the focusing of light is done by the cornea, the lens allows the eye to focus on either near or distant objects. Ciliary muscles surround the lens, relaxing to flatten it to image distant objects and contracting to thicken the lens to image close-up objects.
Vitreous Humor: A certain distance is required to focus light. The vitreous humor is a transparent watery gel that supports the eye and allows for this distance.
Major glands/organs and their functions
Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain. It's located at the base of the brain, near the pituitary gland. While it's very small, the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in many important functions, including: releasing hormones. regulating body temperature.
Pineal Gland: The pineal gland, conarium, or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the brain of most vertebrates. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin-derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles.
Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. It is referred to as the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands
Thyroid Gland: The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate the body's metabolic rate as well as heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain development, mood and bone maintenance. Its correct functioning depends on having a good supply of iodine from the diet.
Parathyroid: The parathyroid glands are four tiny glands, located in the neck, that control the body's calcium levels. Each gland is about the size of a grain of rice (weighs approximately 30 milligrams and is 3-4 millimeters in diameter). The parathyroids produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Thymus: The thymus is a small, irregular-shaped gland in the top part of the chest, just under the breastbone and between the lungs. It is located in an area of the body called the mediastinum. The thymus is part of both the lymphatic system and the endocrine system
Adrenal Glands: The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones.
Pancreas: The pancreas is a gland, about six inches long, located in the abdomen. It is shaped like a flat pear and is surrounded by the stomach, small intestine, liver, spleen and gallbladder. ... The pancreas is both an exocrine gland and endocrine gland and has two main functions – digestion and blood sugar regulation
Ovaries: The ovaries have two main reproductive functions in the body. They produce oocytes (eggs) for fertilisation and they produce the reproductive hormones, oestrogen and progesterone.
Testes: The testicles are housed in the scrotum just behind the penis. The testicles are the male gonads — the primary male reproductive organs. They have two, very important functions that are very important to the male reproductive system: they produce gametes, or sperm, and they secrete hormones, primarily testosterone
names of the hormones produced and their target organs
along with functions of the hormones
Gland: Parathroid Gland
Hormone: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Target: Parathyrod Gland
Function: calcium ion Homeostasis
Gland: Adernal Cortext
Hormone: Cortisol (glucocorticoids)
Target: immune system
Function: break down of protiens and lipids to produce glucose
Gland: Adrenal Cortext
Hormone: Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)
Function: regulate mineral ions
Gland: adrenal Medulla
Target:brain, ions, muscle, heart
Function: help improve blood flow
Target: liver skeletal adipose
function decreases blood glucose levels
Gland: anterior Pituitary
Hormone: Growth Hormone (GH)
Target: Uterines and Breast
Function: triggers contractions of childbirth which releases milk
Gland: anterior Pituitary
Hormone: Thyriod stimulating Hormone (TSH)
function: hormone responsible for stim ulation of thyroid gland.
Gland: anterior pituitart
hormone: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Target: a drenal cortext
Function: stimulates the adrenal cortext, outer part of the adrenal gland produce hormones
gland: anterior pituitary
Hormone: prolaction (PRL)
Target: mammary gland
Function: Produces milk in breast
Gland: anterior pituitary
Hormone: follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
target: follicle cells
Functions: produce gammetes ova in females and spern in males
Gland: anterior pituitary
Hormone: luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Function: produces sex hormones estrgen in females and restosterone in males
Gland: Postiuar Pituitary
Hormone: Antidiuretic Hormone (vasopressin) (ADH)
Target: Kidney and sweat gland
Function: Prevent wter loss
Gland: posterior Pituitary
Target: uterus and brest
Function: uterine contraction during childbirth triggers brest milk
Gland: Thyrois gland
Hormone: Thyroid Hormone (thyrooxine and triiodothyronine) (TH)
Function Regulate metabolic rate
Gland: thyroid gland
Target: calcium ions
Function: tries in blood reduces calcium ions
gland: Pancreas (islets)
Function: increaes breakdown of glycogen to increas blood glucosee levels
Target: body cells
Function: grow hair/muscle and sex organs
Target: pelivs uferus
Function: development of femlae secondary sex charaterstics
function: support thge development retus
Gland: pinal gland
Funtion: regulate human sleep-wake cycle, photoreceptors
Function: protects the body from pathogens
Diseases associated with the endocrine system (include signs
and symptoms of Diabetes Miletus).
Hyperthrodidism- be genetic or caused by tumor on the thyroid; high metabolic rate, weight loss, nervousness, and rapid heartbeat
Graves diseases- autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthroididm
Goiter-needs iodine to produce T3 and T4; swelling of the thyroid
Hypothyoidism-under-active thyroid and cause cretinism-dwarfisin which adult body remain childlike;weakness,weith gain or diffculity losing wight
crushing disease-too much cortisol in the body and producesd by adrenal cortex; caused by tumor on pituitary, lungs, pancrease kidneys etc; can be remove the tumor or discontunation of grug
type 1 diabetes:- bet cells dont make insulin leading the blood sugar too high (80-120 mg/d). it causes sugar leakes to urine, weaken immune system and can damage nerves
type 2 diabetes- body produces insuin but the cells not respond insulin production decrease; it is caused by 80% of people with this form are overweight