National Research Council (2000) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience…
National Research Council (2000) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School
C.1 - Learning: From Speculation to Science
Focus: People, Schools, and the Potential to Learn
Development of the Science of Learning
Learning with Understanding
Implications for Education
An Evolving Science
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom.
To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.
A "metacognitive" approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.
Implications for Teaching
Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them.
Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge.
The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas.
Bringing Order to Chaos
Designing Classrooms Environments
Schools and classrooms must be learner centered
To provide a knowledge-centered classroom environment, attention must be given to what is taught, why it is taught, and what competence or mastery looks like
Formative assessments are essential.
Learning is influenced in fundamental ways by the context in which it takes place.
Applying the Design Framework to Adult Learning
C.3 - Learning and Transfer
Elements that Promote Initial Learning
Understanding Versus Memorizing
Time to Learn
Beyond "Time on Task"
Motivation to Learn
Other Factors that Influence Transfer
Relationship Between Learning and Transfer Conditions
Active Versus Passive Approaches to Transfer
Transfer and Metacognition
Learning as a Transfer from Previous Experiences
Building on Existing Knowledge
Understanding Conceptual Change
Transfer and Cultural Practices
Transfer Between School and Everyday Life
Summary and Conclusion