Communication and Culture (Cocultures and Communication (Race and…
Communication and Culture
Understanding Cultures and Cocultures
coculture: the perception of membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture
intergroup communication: the interaction between members of cocultures
text example: Age, Race, Sexual orientation, Language
culture: the language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn
Intercultural and Intergroup Communication: A matter of Salience
salience: How much weight we attach to a particular person or phenomenon
out-groups: Groups we view as different from us
in-groups: groups with which we identify
Cultural Differences Are Generalizations
Sometimes there're greater differences within cultures than between them
text example: Asian cultures tend to be collectivistic, but many members of those cultures identify themselves as individualists
My own experience: In Taiwan, students in school often like to works together. They believe cooperation is better. I believe working by my own can yield better results.
Cultural Values and Norms Shape Communication
High and Low cultural Context
high-context cultures: a culture that relies heavily on subtle, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony
my experience: In Taiwan, if we hate a person, instead of telling him directly, we will try to avoid facing him.
low-text cultures: A culture that uses language to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas s directly as possible
Uncertainty Avoidance: the cultural tendency to seek stability and honor tradition instead of welcoming risk, uncertainty, and change
text example: In countries that avoid uncertainty, out-of-the-ordinary people and ideas are considered dangerous
Individualism and Collectivism
Individualistic culture: A culture in which members focus on the value and welfare of individual members, as opposed to a concern for the group as a whole
text example: people are more egotistical and confident
collectivistic culture: A culture in which members focus on the welfare of the group as a whole, rather than a concern by individuals for their own success
My experience: In the school of Taiwan, we seldom debate with others when we have a different opinion, since we are taught that harmony is important in society.
Power distance: the degree to which member of a group are willing to accept a difference power and status
Beliefs about Talk and Silence: Beliefs about the very value of talk differ from one culture to another
my experience: In Taiwan, people who talks to much in a group might be considered arrogant or show-off.
Competitive and Cooperative Cultures
text example: gender roles are less differentiated in more cooperative cultures
Cocultures and Communication
Race and Ethnicity
ethnicity: A social construct that refers to the degree to which a person identifies with a particular group, usually on the basis of nationality, culture, religion, or some other unifying perspective
race: A construct originally created to explain differences between people whose ancestors originated in different regions of the world
intersectionality: The idea that people influenced in unique ways by the complex overlap and interactions of multiple indetities
my experience: In Taiwan, people live in Taipei, which is our capital, might consider themselves more capable or noble then people live in other cities
Sexual orientation and Gender Identity
coming out: declaring one's non-traditional sexual orientation clearly
religion is the defining factor in shaping in- and out-groups
text example: Muslims living in the west have been singled out and vilified
many people with disabilities find that belonging to a community of similar people can be rewarding
communication challenges raise when member of different generational work together
organizational culture: A relatively stable, shared set of rules about how to behave and a set of values about what is important
Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
prejudice: An unfairly biased and intolerant attitude toward others who belong to an out-group
hegemony: the dominance of one over another
Ethnocentrism: the Attitude that one's own culture is superior to others'
Tolerance for Ambiguity
Knowledge and Skill
Patience and perseverance
I think the contact hypothesis really bothers me, since that in my culture, when we are unfamiliar with someone, we will try to avoid contact with that person. This way we can reduce or awkward or conflict. So, increasing contact with people in different cultures is a big challenge for me.
The concept of cultural differences is generalizations really confused me, since I never seriously think about the difference among people in the same culture. I would like to find out more examples of the difference between people in the same culture.
The differences between competitive and cooperative cultures surprised me the most, since I never thought that the concept of gender equality is different between these two. In the past, I thought gender equality is valued at the same level in every culture.