22 year old presents with testicular shrinkage ( (Kidney damage , some of…
22 year old presents with testicular shrinkage
Two types of Hormones: Lipid-soluble and Water soluble
Water soluble hormones include protein, amino acids, goth hormone, ADH, insulin and glucagon. They do not go in the cell membrane, they only bind to the receptors. They use the second message system.
Lipid soluble hormones include: estrogen,progesterone, corticosteroids, testosterone and aldosterone. They affect the DNA and it tells our genes to directly activate .
Major endocrine glands:Piuitary, pineal, thyroid and adrenal gland.
Anterior Pituitary: TSH: stimulates the release of thyroid hormone, Prolactin breast milk production and regulates mammary gland growth. FSH stimulates estrogen release. LH induces ovulation. Adrenocoticotropic hormone stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. Growth Hormone growth stimilates growth in bone and muscles.
Thyroid Gland releases T3 and T4 it increase metabolic rate and heat production. Another hormone that is released by the thyroid
the gland is calcitonin which decreases calcium levels in the blood.
Posterior pituitary: Antidiuretic its function is to maintain fluid balance. Ocytocin function is stimulates smooth muscle contraction of the uterus and help to eject breast milk.
The adrenal gland releases 3 different hormones. Mineralcorticoids decrease sodium levels and increases potassium in our blood. Glucocorticoids increase nutrients that are available in our blood and it also, responds to stress ganadocorticoids which stimulate maturation of the reproductive system.
The adrenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine which prolongs effects of the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
Endocrine system functions: regulating of development, growth, and metabolism, maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume, controlling digestive system and reproductive activities.
From the hypothalamus the GnRH comes to the cell gonadotropin in the anterior pituitary and tells the cell to stimulate the production of FSH and LH which FSH encourages to create sperm and LH is encourages testosterone production.
The negative feedback loop in the excessive steroid usage of the body will tell the releasing hormones to stop the reproduction of testosterone. The gonadotropin will no longer be able to produce as much or in cases none of the lutenizing hormone and follice stimulating hormones due to damage in the receptors.
Patient had been injecting with Potent,synthetic and anabolic steroids
some of the effects of use of anabolic steroids will be infertility, due to damage of the testis.
Liver enzymes will be elevated with continuous use of steroids.
anger and depression disorders
Heart problems due to the inability of the heart muscles to relax this can cause coronary artery disease.
Due to the increased testosterone the ganadotropin cell will decrease the production of testosterone, since there is an elevated amount the GnRH will stop working and there will be a damage in the testosterone receptors.
Male sexual characteristics will also be affected, such a deep voice, beards, masculinity, and also a decrease in sex drive.
Patient is concern bout his sex drive being affected and also possible infertility due to use of steroids.