Reformation of the Christian Church (Luther Leads the Reformation (England…
Reformation of the Christian Church
Luther Leads the Reformation
Causes For Reformation
The Renaissance emphasis on the secular and the individual challenged Church authority.
Northern merchants resented paying church taxes to Rome.
By 1500, additional forces weakened the Church.
Many popes were too busy pursuing worldly affairs to have much time for spiritual duties.
Critics of the Church claimed that its leaders
Luther Challenges the church
Quickly, Luther’s name became known all over Germany.
Soon Luther went beyond criticizing indulgences.
In 1517, Luther decided to take a public stand against the actions of a friar named Johann Tetzel.
In one angry reply to Church criticism, Luther actually suggested that Christians drive the pope from the Church by force.
Luther was astonished at how rapidly his ideas spread and attracted followers.
In 1520, Pope Leo X issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements.
The Emperors opposition
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, a devout Catholic,
also opposed Luther’s teaching.
Some people began to apply Luther’s revolutionary ideas to society.
A month after Luther made that speech, Charles issued an imperial order, the Edict of Worms. It declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic.
Bands of angry peasants went about the countryside
raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burning.
In contrast to the bitter peasants, many northern German princes supported Lutheranism.
They saw his teachings as a good excuse to seize Church property and to assert their independence from Charles V.
Still determined that his subjects should remain Catholic, Charles V went to war against the Protestant princes.
England becomes protestant
When Henry VIII became king of England in 1509, he
was a devout Catholic.
By 1527, Henry was convinced that the 42-year-old Catherine would have no more children.
Henry feared that a civil war would start if he died without a son as his heir.
In 1529, he called Parliament into session and asked it to pass a set of laws that ended the pope’s power in England.
As part of the Act of Supremacy, Henry was allowed to disband Catholic monasteries and convents and take their possessions.
After Henry’s death in 1547, each of his three children ruled England in turn.
Elizabeth I was determined to return her kingdom to Protestantism.
Elizabeth decided to establish a state church that moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might both accept.
In the late 1500s, the English began to think about building an American empire as a new source of income
Calvin Continues the Reformatiom
Calvin Formalizes protestant ideas
In 1536 Calvin published Institutes of The Christian Religion. This book expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human nature.
Calvin went on to say that God chooses a very few people to save. Calvin called these few the "elect". He believed that God has known since the beginning of time who would be saved,
The religion based on Calvin's teachings is called Calvinism.
Scottish preacher John Knox, who learned about Calvinism when he visited Geneva, brought it back to Scotland with him. There, he put Calvin's ideas to work and made Calvinism spread in Scotland.
Swiss, Dutch, and French reformers all started to adopt Calvinism.
In France, a lot of violence occurred between Catholics and what the Calvinist in France were called(Huguenots)
Calvin leads reformation in Switzerland
Calvin believed the ideal government was a theocracy. It is a government controlled by religious leaders.
In 1541 protestants of Geneva, Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their city. When he arrived in 1540, they were a self governing city.
Calvin and his followers ran the city with a strict set of rules; Everyone attended religious class. No one wore bright clothing or played card games.
Calvinism's strictness inspired some Protestants to destroy religious pieces of art in churches and public places because they thought the artwork was idolatrous.
Anyone who preached other doctrines were found and burned at the stake.
The Catholic Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola
A great turning point came in Ignatius's life when he was injured in War in 1521. While recovering he found his way into religion.
In 1522, Ignatius started writing a book called Spiritual exercises. It laid out a day to day plan for meditation.
For the next 18 years he gained more and more followers. In 1540 the pope created a religious order for his followers called the Society of Jesus.
Paul III, pope from 1534 to 1549, took four important steps in reforming the catholic church.
The next pope, Paul IV, vigorously carried out the council's decrees. In 1559. he had official draw up a list of books considered dangerous to catholic faith. This list was known as the index of Forbidden Books.
From 1545 to 1563, at the council of Trent, Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines.