The Move to Global War (Japanese expansion to East Asia (Events (Sino…
The Move to Global War
Japanese expansion to East Asia
Sino-Japanese War (1937–1941)
-1937: Fighting broke out between Japanese and Chinese forces at the Marco Polo Bridge: Japan attacks were really hard on china and they were quickly gaining land.
-The Rape of Nanjing: Nanjing fell into the hands of the Japanese in 1937 Chinese soldiers and civilians were subjected to very bad consequences. Many raped and killed.
_The Japanese thought china would surrender fast but china was very mad about everything Japan was doing in this war that they went in a state of resistance.
-Allowance of troops and airfields in Indo-China became first step in Japan’s conquest of SE Asia
The Three Power/Tripartite Pact; the outbreak of war; Pearl Harbor (1941)
-Japan signed a pact which agreed that Italy and Germany would dominate Europe and leave Japan to dominate East Asia
-1941 Japan signed neutrality pact with the soviet union in order to secure its northern border. Didn't want war on two fronts.
-The Nazi successes were seen as an opportunity to take over Asian colonies of Britain, France and the Netherlands; it caused to be fully engaged with china in a war; also tying to gain more power in Europe.
-141: Pearl Harbor: motivated by domestic issues: Negotiations with the U.S were trying to be made but they ended up not happening and Japan attacked when those negotiations fell.
Japanese invasion of Manchuria and northern China (1931)
-Japan declared war on Russia in 1904 (largely due to their conflicting interests in Manchuria and Korea) and at the end Russia signed the Treaty of Portsmouth which allowed Japan to gain control of Korea, much of South Manchuria, including railway rights (Japan gained respect)
-Japan then issued “Twenty One Demands to China”, which included allowing Japan to remain in China indefinitely in addition to extra commercial privileges in Manchuria
-Caused by an explosion of Japanese owned Manchurian railways. This explosion gave the Japanese a reason to-invade Manchuria.
-Relationship between Japan and GB/US began to deteriorate
-Japan left the League of Nations because of the international criticism of the Manchurian Crisis
-Nazi Germany was admired by Japan
Political developments within China—the Second United Front
The united front was union of Nationalist and communist that ended up coming to a clash that gave japan advantage.
-The Japanese how to adopt a policy of living off the land with the help of puppet governments. Wang Jingwei believed the China could never win against the Japanese so in 1940 he agreed to become the head of the new government of China.
International response, including US initiatives and increasing tensions between the United States and Japan
-Negotiations between Japan and the U.S continued through out 1941, but got stuck on the issue of limiting Japanese expansion and Japan was getting mad.
-The u.s wanted to limit japan and helped china by restricting raw material of the Japanese.
-“Twenty One Demands to China” angered the U.S and Great Britain so Japan had to modify them
-When Japan tried to take over more Asian colonies the U.S and GB immediately froze all Japanese assets and stopped trade with Japan , and increased their aid to others.
League of Nations and the Lytton report
-League of Nations: The league condemned Japan for breaking the Nine Power Treaty of 1922 but in reality it was not impotent and could take little practical action to help China.
-Britain and France preoccupied
-The nine power treaty meeting condemned the actions of Japan and urged that hostilities be suspended but it produced no measures to stop Japanese invasion.
-1931-Lytton Report was a commission sent by the League of nations to attempt to determine the causes of the Mukden Incident
Causes of Expansion
Japanese domestic issues: political and economic issues, and their impact on foreign relations
-In late 1920's the Great Depression caused economic problems for the Japanese and they were in need of money and growth.
-The need of things caused Japan to open up to trade and not be independent anymore. Also became prepared.
-They needed to expand and they wanted to expand to china. It lead to being blocked of raw materials because of the U.S. Created Conflict and relations with the U.S.
-Japan signed Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany in 1932
Political instability in China
Late 1920's : Nationalist party in china (GMD) lead by Jiang: Campaign of national unification: Anti- foreigner rhetoric and demands to end unequal trities formed by the great powers towards them
-1921: New political party which was the communist Party. Lead by Mao Zedong--- The party later on joined with the Nationalist Party to for the "United Front" This new party launched the Northern Expedition to consolidate central government control and wrest power from the warlords
-1927: Communist and Nationalist party clashed in an all out civil war, and they only focused on winning this war rather than focus on defeating Japan. China became weak and Japan took advantage.
The impact of Japanese nationalism and militarism on foreign policy
Foreign Policy was all dependent on the growth of nationalism and the growing power of the military
Japan had planned a war with the aim of dominating Asia.
-Had to prepare their army to be ready for war if negotiations abroad failed after they opened up to the rest of the world.
-China and Russia war gave people boost and Japan's position in main land china.
-Japan believed that it was their duty, and destiny, to become leaders of the region. They quickly escalated and became a powerful country in Europe.
-Military is completely reformed along Western lines and a new navy was established w/British help ( British on their side)
-The Kwantung (Japanese) Army used the explosion of their rail way as an excuse to begin a large-scale invasion and occupation of Manchuria
German and Italian Expansion
Italian expansion: Abyssinia (1935–1936); Albania; entry into the Second World War
Italian was a poor country so building a new empire. So Italy expansion to Abyssinia was for supplies but also because Italy thought some of Abyssinia land was Italy's. The league ignored the situation.
German expansion (1938–1939); Pact of Steel, Nazi–Soviet Pact and the outbreak of
Germany wanted land from sudetenland or there will be war Britain,Germany,France and Italy decided to have a meeting to decide what they would do. They all decided to give germany the land for peace.
German challenges to the post-war settlements (1933–1938)Germany's challenges were that they weren't able to have the army, etc. Germany was not happy with the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler wanted to create foreign policies and get rid of the TOV because of how unfair it was for the German people. Pact of steel a treaty in 1929 between Germany and Italy
International response to German aggression (1933–1938)
Germany withdrew from the disarmament Conference and the league.Germany wanted parts Poland that they had lost in the past war and since Britain and France didn't agree on that they said that if Germany invaded Poland they would start war.
International response to Italian aggression (1935–1936)
Italy's response was that they allowed the British to approach the situation and to prevent an outbreak of war. Italy took over Abyssinia because they were in need of it because of the economic problems and population problems. The league of nations didn't do anything.
International response to German and Italian aggression (1940)
Germany and Italy signed the Pact of steel so they can support each other (1939)
Causes of Expansion
Impact of fascism and Nazism on the foreign policies of Italy and Germany
Nazi: Hitler thought the treaty was unfair to Germany, Hitler's plan was to undo the treaty to rebuild and expand Germany. This caused Europe to be afraid since they didn't want to start another conflict. Fascism: Mussolini's main goal was to earn Italy respect After 1934 the policy weren't diplomatic and was more aggresisve. His view to expand italy and that grew bigger and bigger his desire was now to get land,
Impact of domestic economic issues on the foreign policies of Italy and Germany Italy: In the early 1920s Germany decided to face hyperinflation which for nonworkers and for workers had a very big down fall some workers became job less and nonworkers was more harder for them because not only they don't have jobs but all the money they did just to get it was for nothing. Even though germany tried to rebluild, the great depression they broke down again which caused Mussoilin to take adancetage to be able to advance their technology.
Changing diplomatic alignments in Europe; the end of collective security; appeasement The treaty was being too harsh in the view of britain and other countries so they let germany to break the rules and get some demands they wanted. and the biggest reason was so there wont another war. Countries were giving germany land but Germany desire for land was poland which would cause another war to have between britain, fance and germany.