Chapter 8-Political Geography (How Is Space Politically Organized Into…
Chapter 8-Political Geography
What Are Supranational Organizations, And What Is The Future Of The State?
regional supranational organizations
The Marshall plan-the largest foreign aid program in history financing a European recovery program.
Benelux region-the government of three states met in London to sign an agreement of cooperation during World War II
From league of Nations to United Nations
supranational organization purposed after ww1 by president Wilson-he proposed an international organization that would include all states of the world leading to the creation of the league of Nations
why the us didn't join the league of nations-isolationists in the US Senate opposed joining
The United Nations was formed-1991
UNESCO-United Nations educational, scientific, and cultural organization
FAO-food and agriculture organization
WHO-World health organization
Most important U.N. human rights document-the Universal declaration on human rights, the covarnant on civil and political rights, and the covenant on economic and social rights
What states do to commit to by participating in the united nations-States commit internationally approved standards of behavior
The United Nations represents only truly International forum for addressing many significant problems confronting the globe
In the early 21st-century, we appear to be caught between forces and the division and unification-at every turn we are reminded of the interconnectedness of nations states and regions yet separatim and calls for autonomy or rampantt
supranational organization-an entity composed of three or more states that forged in association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals.
The European Union
The OEEC, DECSC, the EEC, and the EC we're all predecessors to which European supranational organization established in 1992-EU
The euro-single currency of the eu
Why the expansion of the EU proved challenging-intergration is a difficult process and often requires painfuk adjustments because of the diversity of the involved states
Types of European cooperation that the EU facilitates-OEEC,ECSE,ECSC.
Why Greece and other EU member states oppose the addition of Turkey-the long-standing dispute between greece and turkey over Cyprus and a number of islands off the turkish coast.
How does the supranational affect the state
Why nuclear weapons may be the most serious danger the world faces-nuclear weapons give small states the ability to inflict massive damage on larger and distant adversaries, combines with missile technology
How violence by extremists challenge the state-whether undertaken by individuals at local scale or widely diffuse grousp spread across major world realms the states mission to combat religious violence can produce support for the state government short term, but many of the states inability to defeat extremist attacks may weeken the state in long term.
Four other movements mentioned in the first paragraph of page 285 in addition to the EU you are posing major challenges to the state as we know it-demand of nations within states for independence, economic globalization, increasing connectedness among people people and cultures, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
We appear to be headed down toward a world in which spatial distribution of power is more complex to than the traditional map of the states would suggest-the state of the Geopolitical order is clearly in flux
Why the EU is unlike any other supranational organization-it has taken on a life of it's own with a multi phase government structure, three capital cities, and billions of zeros going through its coffers.
MERCOSUR-southern cone community market
ECOWAS-Economic community of Western Africa
ACS-association of Caribbean states
APEC-asian pacific economic council
NAFTA-North American Free Trade Agreement
CIS-commonwealth of independent states
deterritorialization-used to describe these processes creating economic social and cultural geographies. reterritorialization-the state is moving to solidify control over its territory through a process known as retaritorrialization.
How Is Space Politically Organized Into States And Nations?
State-politically organized territory with a permanent population, defined territory, and a government.
how states protect territorial integrity-American Indians shared hunting grounds with neighboring tribes that were friendly and fought over hunting ground with unfriendly neighboring tribes.
territory-a system of political units that come into being with fixed, distinct boundaries, and at least a quasi-independent government. Territorial-the process by which such units come into being(can be at different scales)
mercantilism-belief in the benefits of profitable trading
The world map of state is anything but natural-as people create places, imparting character to space and shaping culture, people make states, states and boundaries are made, shaped, and even refined by people, their actions, and their history.
Event that marked the begining of the modern state system-Peace of westphalia-series of peace treaties ending the European wars of religion lasting 30 years.(The language of the treaties laid the foundations for Europe made up of mutually recognized territorial states)
sovereignty-having a recognized right to control a territory both politically and militarily.
how Westphalia marked a fundamental change in the relationship between people and territory- the territory defined the society and is treated as a fixed element of political identification
How to French revolution change political authority in Europe –the foundations for political authority came to be seen as resting with the state Citizenry not with a hereditary monarchy
nation-a group of people who think of themselves as one based on sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political territorial autonomy
nation-state-a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space.
nationalism-way of thinking that says that some groups of humans, such as ethnic groups, should be free to rule themselves
How European states attempted to build nation–states in the 1800s and 1900s-the quest form nation states in Europe of the 1800s was associated with the rise and nationalism. The 19th century was the true age of nationalism in Europe in some cases the pursuit of nationalist ambitions produced greater cohesion within long establish states such as France or Spain. People also launched separatists movements.
How European colonization in Africa and Asia promoted nationalism-people could take pride in their nations vast colonial empire people could identify themselves with their nations by contrasting themselves with people in the colonies whom they defined as mystical or savage.
multinational state-estate with more than one nation inside its borders. multistate nation-when a nation stretches across borders and across states. stateless nation-nations without a state.
How Europe exported it's concepts of state soveringty and the desire for nation-state to the rest of the world- through two waves of colonization, in the 16th century Spain and Portugal took advantage of increasingly well consolidated internal political order the new found wealth to expand their influence to increasingly far-flung rounds during the first wave. Later joined by Britain France and the Netherlands and Belgium the first wave colonialism establish a far reaching political economic systemL.
The second wave consisted of the colonizing parties meeting for the Berlin conference and arbitrarily laid out the colonial map of Africa without reference to indigenous culture or political arrangement
How European colonization influence the political geography of the non-European world –Europeans lead the ground rules for the emerging international state systems, and the modern European concept of the nation- state became the model adopted around the world and established the ground rules of the capitalist world economy.
Colonialism –the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
why scale is critical to the study go geography-we need to be able to see smaller parts of the map while also being able to see it as a whole.
how economic power can bring political power-economic power means wealth and political power means the ability to influence others to achieve your goals, each state is theoretically sovereign but not all states have the same ability to influence others or to achive their political goals. having wealth helps leaders amass political power
3 tenants of world systems theory
The world economy has one market and the global division of labor
Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy
The world economy has a three tier structure
Capitalism – in the world economy, individuals, corporations, and states produce goods and services that are exchanged for profit
Greatest political challenge facing the state of Africa since independence-building nation-states out of incredibly divergent people.
How the European nation-state model still shapes the political organization of space-major players in international relations still seek solutions to complex political conflicts by tring to redraw the political map in an effort to bring political and national borders into closer correspondence
commodification –the process of placing a price on a good, service, or idea and then buying, selling, and treating that item.
The core – not just the places but the sites where a particular processes take place. The couriers were most likely to find higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology.The core – not just the places but the sites where a particular processes take place. The couriers were most likely to find higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology. periphery-has low water levels of education, lower salaries, unless technology. semi periphery-places where core and periphery processes are both occurring
How European colonizers amass great concentration of wealth in the first wave of colonization and then in the second-during the first wave colonizers extracted goods from the Americas in the Caribbean and exploited Africa for slave labor,amassing wealth through sugar, coffee, fruit, and cotton production. During the second wave coloniaizers set their sights on cheap industrial labor cheap rawl materials and large scale agriculture plantations.
How non-colonizing countries such as Switzerland, Singapore, and Australia gained power –the countries gained positions through access to the networks of production, consumption, and exchange in the wealthiest parts of the world and through their ability to take advantage of that access.
How Do States Spatially Organize Their Government?
electoral geographers-they examine how the spacial configuration of electoral districts and the voting patterns that emerge in particular elections reflect and influence the social and political affairs.
territorial representation in the U.S. government-in the Senate each major territorial unit gets two representatives and in the house of representatives, members are elected from territorially defined districts based on population.
U.S. faces most devolutionary pressure from Hawaii, Hawaii wanted return of rights lost during the occupation.
reapportionment and how often it occurs in the U.S.-the process by which districts are moved according to population shifts so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people. This happens every 10 years based off the US census
redistricting - the process of drawing electoral district boundaries in the United States. This happens once reaportintment is complete
Major criteria used in redistricting process-equal representation, achieve by ensuring that the districts have a proximately the same populations
sources devolution rises from
ethnocultural: devolutionary movements from nations within a state that find themselves as being ethnically, linguistically, or religiously distinct
economic devolutionary forces: devolutionary movement due to economic reasons
territorial: Devolution due to territorial influences
How the 1982 amendments to the 1965 voting rights act and subsequent legal interpretations seek to address the issue of splitting-the court interpreted this amendment to mean states needed to redistrict in a way that would ensure minority representation.
devolution-the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state.
majority-minority district-Packed district in which a majority of the population is from the minority
federalism can cause centripetal and centrifugal forces-"federalism does not create unity out of diversity, but rather it enables the two to coexist."
gerrymandering-used to describe redistricting for advantage. is legal but can be restricted.
unitary states-highly centralized states (focused in one place)central government gets authority. federal states-regions have much control over government policies and funds.
centripetal forces-the forces within a state that unify people. centrifugal forces-forces within a state that divide people.
How Does The Study Of Geopolitics Help Us Understand The World?
American leaders often spatialize politics into a world of us and them-presidents have repeatedly defined an us that is pro-democracy, independent, self-sufficient, and free and a them that is in someway against all of these things.
bi-polar world order of the Cold War era-the Soviet union and it's Warsaw Pact satellites versus the United States and it's close allies in Western Europe
critical geopolitics-intellectuals of state craft construct ideas about geographical circumstances in places, these ideas influenced and reinforce their political behaviors and policy choices, and then affect what happens and how most people interpret what happens.
new world order of the post Soviet Union era-five possible orders could have emerged among the three major powers, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet union. Each could have created it's own bloc with its own allies, the three could've come together under the United Nations or three possible alliances could've occoured
what today geopolitical experts focus on today-revealing and explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of international actors.
unilateralism-Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action
how mackinders ideas contributed to the formation of NATO-offered strategies to keep soviet union in check,including avoiding the expansion of heartland, creating an allience around the north atlantic against heartland.
How to controversial US invasion of Iraq underminded the US international influence-Southeast Asian states that had long been oriented towards the US begin to turn away. A significant rift developed across the Atlantic between the United States and some European countries, and the anti-Americanism surged around the world.
heartland theory, world regions most strategically important to control-soviet union
4 additional forces that are challenging American unilateralism-the process of globalization, the diffusion of nuclear weapons, the emergence of China and India has increasingly significant powers, and the growth of the network groups and organizations, including terrorist groups.
essential, life giving force- territory
In the future we may no longer see states as dominant actors in the international arena, which to other possibilities are mentioned-many of the same forces that worked against American unilateralism have underminded some of the traditional powers of the state. The rise of regional blocs could lead to a new multipolar order, with the key clusters of states as function ending as major Geo political nodes Global cities may gain increasing power over issues typically address by states..
two camps of classical geopolitics in late 19th and early 20th century
1-Herman school, which sought to explain why certain states are powerful and how they become powerful
2-british/American school, which sought out to offer strategic advice by identifying parts of earths surface that were particularly important for the maintenance and projection of power
geopolitics-the interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations on earth surface
Field note-independence Is Better Than Servitude
Kwame Nkrumah-Ghanas first president, attempted assassination on him, dressed up his statue in hospital gown and bandaged his head, Nkrumah's wrote "to me the liberation of Ghana will be meaning less unless it is linked up with the liberation of Africa" "we prefer self-government with danger to servitude in tranquility"
Decolonization- undoing of colonialism
Problems the legacy of European colonization created for states such as Ghana-European colonialism organized the world as a huge functional region controlled from Europe and designed to serve Europe's economic and political interests it also uses the European way of politically organizing space into states.This system and its lack of fit for most of the world has caused political strife but people still seek to become independent countries
How political activity is as basic to human culture as language or religion-all individual groups, communities, nations, governments, and suprnational organizations engage in political activity. each desire power and influence to reach public goals.
What geographers are most interested in with politics-political geographers spend most time trying to understand spacial assumptions and structures underlying politics, the way people organize space, the role territory plays in politics, and the problems that result from changing political and territorial circumstances.
How Are Boundaries Established, And Why Do Boundary Disputes Occur?
geometric boundaries-when boundaries are drawn using read systems such as latitude longitude or township and range. physical-political boundaries-countries that follow an agreed-upon feature in the natural landscape, such as the centerpoint of a river or the crest of a mountain range.
4 types of principle boundary disputes
National boundary disputes-Center on the limitation and possibly the demarcation of the boundary.
Ration of boundary dispute-involves neighbors who differ over the way their border should function.
Definitional of boundary disputes-these disputes focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement.
allocation boundary disputes-mainly about hard to define borders such as underwater oil reserves.
4 step process of establishing a boundary
2-delimit:cartographers delimit the boundary by drawing on a map
3-Demarcate: States can demarcate the boundary by using steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, walls, or some other visible means to mark the boundary on the ground.
1-define: States define the boundaries and a treaty like legal document in which points in the landscape or points of the latitude and longitude are described
4-administrate: to determine how the boudaries will be maintained and to determine which goods and people may cross them
"Boundary is more than a line"- boundary between states is actually a vertical plane that cuts through rocks below and aispace above, dividing one state from another.