PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS (COGNITIVE (EVALUATION (+_ Cognitive…
EYSENCK'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY
INTROVERSION/EXTROVERSION (E) -
Extroverts are outgoing and have high positive emotions. They have an underactive nervous system so they constantly seek excitement.
Introverts are more reserved and quiet
Neurotism- tendency to experience negative emotional states.
Neurotic people tend to be anxious, nervous and hard to predict
Criminal personality type= neurotic-extravert
A typical criminal will score highly on psychoticism (cold, unemotional and aggressive). Criminals are developmentally immature and are difficult to socialise
-- personality may not be consistent. Assumes a person is anxious all the time.
+_ EYSENCK and EYSENCK (1977) 2000 male prisoners vs 2000 male controls. Prisoners scored higher om P, N and E
-- Method used is flawed. Requires yes/no answers. May not fit accurately. May also give socially desirable responses.
-- Cultural differences. BARTOL and HOLANCHOCK studied Hispanic and African- American offenders in max security prisons and found all to be less extravert than non- criminal control group.
LEVEL OF MORAL REASONING
KOHLBERG suggests reasoning for what is right and wrong can be summarised in stages. Result of biological maturity and opportunities. Suggests that criminals have a lower level of moral reasoning.
Obedience and punishment- based on avoiding punishment
Individualism and exchange- the "right" behaviour is what is in best interest for oneself
interpersonal and relationships- good boy/girl attitude- social roles
Authority and social order- social obedience needed to maintain functional society
Social contract- begin to learn different views
Universal Principles- develop internal moral principles
Hostile Attribution Bias- people misinterpret other's actions
Minimalization- consequences of an action are under or over exaggerated
+_ Cognitive distortions can be used in real world application. Treat offenders by teaching them behaviour techniques. HELLER ET AL (2013) 44% reduction.
+_ KENNEDY and GRUBIN (1992) found support for minimalization. Sex offenders often downplayed their behaviour. "They were asking for it"
-- Individual differences in moral reasoning. Those who commit crimes for financial gain are more likely to be in pre-conventional stage.
-- Assumes thought predict behaviour. BAsed on moral reasoning not behaviour.