AUTHENTIC E-LEARNING BY JANE HERRINGTON (Elements of Authentic Learning…
What is authentic learning
Collins (1988) defined situated cognition most simply as:
“the notion of learning knowledge and skills in contexts that reflect the way the knowledge will be useful in real life”.
The proposed model of situated cognition, Brown et al. (1989b) argued that
meaningful learning will take place only if it is embedded in the social and physical context within which it will be used
They proposed the use of
, a method designed to “
enculturate students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction
,” and based on the successful traditional apprenticeship model
(Brown et al., 1989b
Apprentices often have several masters and have access to a variety of models of expertise leading to an understanding that there may be different ways to carry out a task, and that no one individual embodies all knowledge and expertise
Learners have the opportunity to observe other learners with varying degrees of skill
Learners have continual access to models of expertise-in-use against which to refine their understanding of complex skills
Hummel (1993), talking about distance learning, rejected the idea that the program was “true” situated learning by virtue of the fact that it was computer-based: “Instructional designers who apply situated learning theory by implementation in electronic media should realize that they take an important step away from this theory . . . courseware becomes the learning environment and not the authentic situation”.
Similarly, Tripp (1993) contended that computer-based simulations were not sufficient, and reiterated that “true expertise is learned by being exposed to experts”.
McLellan (1994) summarised by pointing out that while knowledge must be learned in context according to the situated learning model, that context can be: the actual work setting, a highly realistic or “virtual” surrogate of the actual work environment, or an anchoring context such as a video or multimedia program.
Authentic learning has its foundations in the theory of
situated cognition or situated learning
, together with other pedagogical approaches developed over the last two decades, such as
Elements of Authentic Learning (Herrington & Oliver, 2000)
Support collaborative construction of knowledge.
joint problem solving and social support
collaboration encouraged through technology
tasks addressed to groups, not individuals
team or pairs rather than individual
Promote reflection to enable abstractions to be formed
opportunity to think about, reflect and discuss choices
not quite and solitary - often a two way process
opportunities to reflect in online and mobile journals and diaries
opportunities to make choices
Provide multiple roles and perspectives.
different perspective form different point of view
example in online learning
powerful search engine
Promote articulation to enable tacit knowledge to be made explicit.
opportunities for students to speak and write about their growing understanding
public presentation of argument to enable defence of position and ideas
e.g.: twitter comments
Provide access to expert performances and the modelling of processes.
access to expert thinking and the modelling of process
access to learners in various levels of expertise
opportunities for the sharing of narratives or stories
access to the way an expert would think and act
expertise is distributed
Provide coaching and scaffolding by the teacher at critical times.
scaffolding and coaching
role for teachers means assisting, not by giving students answers or information, but by
helping students at the metacognitive level
- such as by asking further questions.
teachers' role is supporting
more able partners can assisst
no attempt to 'transmit' knowledge
Provide authentic tasks
are tasks and activities that have real-world relevance.
Provide for authentic assessment of learning within the tasks
assessment is integrated with the task rather than separate testing
how to do?
use the elements of the task to guide the creation of authentic assessment
opportunities to craft polished performances
significant students time and effort in collaboration with others
seamless integration of assessment and task
Provide authentic contexts that reflect the way the knowledge will be used in real life.
is a physical or virtual environment that reflects the way the knowledge will be used in real-life
Can a learning environment be called authentic if it is completed in a classroom or on campus? Yes, we think so! Authentic does not necessarily mean real (as in practicums and internships). As a pedagogical model,
authentic learning means that realistic tasks set in academic settings can challenge students to think and solve problems just as professionals do in the real world.
AUTHENTIC LEARNING HAPPENS IN CLASSROOMS!
If you think about the types of tasks and their settings, it helps to see where authentic learning is situated. In this matrix,
the authenticity of the task is on one axis (from authentic to decontextualised), and the setting is on the other (the classroom/university to the real setting)
Definition of therms:
:check:is the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed
:check: is the interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs : ENVIRONMENT, SETTING
:check:is a physical or virtual environment that reflects the way the knowledge will be used in real life
:check: is not false or imitation; REAL; ACTUAL