The Verb: the Categories of Voice and Mood (The category of voice…
The Verb: the Categories of Voice and Mood
The category of voice
The form of the verb may show
is the doer of the action
John broke the vase
the recipient of the action
vase was broken
Verbs used only transitively
Verbs with the main transitive meaning
Verbs of intransitive meaning and secondary transitive meaning
They laughed me
He danced the girl out of the room
Verbs of a double nature
to drive home
to drive a
Verbs that are never used in the Passive Voice
Verbs that realize their passive meaning only in special contexts
Three types of passive constructions
1) direct primary
A book was given to him. The story was told to her sister.
2) indirect secondary passive
He was given a book. Her sister was told the story.
3) prepositional tertiary passive
Everything was taken care of
She could not bear being read to any longer
He was constantly being laughed at.
the verbs primarily transitive may develop an intransitive
That adds a lot.
The door opened.
The book sells easily.
dress washes well.
the subject is both the agent
and the recipient of the action at the same time
He washed himself.
always possible to use a
reciprocal pronoun here
They kissed each other.
The category of mood
the system of oblique moods
So be it. Long live the Queen.
If I had / had had time
I would go / would have gone there
I demand that he should be present
two forms of Subjunctive II and Conditional used in a conditional period
homonymous to Past Indefinite and Future-in-the-Past
Past Perfect and Future-Perfect-in-the-Past
express the same meaning and don’t exist independently
Prof. Khlebnikova called mood
Subjunctive I and Suppositional
used in specific syntactic
after ‘suggest’, etc.
the indicative mood
the basic mood of
the spective mood
represents a process
as a non-fact
Mood and modality
The main markers
the modal auxiliaries
what is said
It is hot outside.
how it is said
Three main kinds of modal meaning
influencing actions, states, or events
You must come in immediately (obligation).
You can have one more turn. (permission)
You can’t have any more. (prohibition)
May he lose the race. (wish)
concerned with the speaker’s judgement of the truth
of the proposition embedded in the statement.
It was a mistake.
You may be right
and generally concerns the properties and dispositions of persons
Liz can drive better than you.
I asked Ed to go but he won’t.
Oppositional reduction of verbal categories
otherwise functioning oppositions
The exhibition opens next week.
occurs in clauses of time and
condition whose verb-predicate expresses a future action
the paradigmatically required form “will start” can
be used here
when one of the members of the opposition is placed in contextual conditions
uncommon for it
He is always borrowing my pen.