E219 - Week 12 EMOTION in Middle Childhood ( Dr Eamon McCrory, Professor…
E219 - Week 12 EMOTION in Middle Childhood
Chapter 9: Emotion in middle childhood
Heather Montgomery and John Oates
almost impossible to define and measure
why do children react differently to same adversity?
some fine others suffer?
disagreement over if an
outcome or a process
studies vary ; some longitudinal, some number crush, some ask thoughts and opinions of the children
middle childhood - exploration and exposure to more unfamiliar situations & people -
what has gone before in the early years of development, and the many influences on this, have
laid the foundations for how children will respond
(Woodhead and Moss, 2007).
necessary to consider development longitudinally, across the life span.
Dr Eamon McCrory,
Professor of Developmental Neuroscience and Psychopathology at University College London and Head of Postgraduate Studies at the
Anna Freud Centre
also a clinical psychologist
resilience not a 'character of an individual' it can develop in certain people who are exposed to a risk.
medical model issue
tries to say got depression etc but it's about the interaction of exposure to a risk and how it manifests and what it can provoke
'gene environment interactions
' different polymers- eg serotonin transporter gene- if you have a particular gene could (if exposed to risk environment) more of a tendency to certain issues
- turning a gene on and off. eg twins can activate different genes, or certain experiences (eg domestic violence) can make children more aware/vigilant of angry faces
hypervigilance - can be good4 immediate survival but can hold risks in later life. It's not conscience awareness- subliminal, may even imagine threat that is not present
currently no longitudinal studies
of long term brain effect (starting one this sep)
working with carers (teachers, foster p etc) so aware of issues
most issues only dealt with when fully manifested. Hoping to identify early signs so pre empt ingrained and serious issues
READING A - McCrory
maltreatment = more likely to develop psychological problems (Curry and Widom, 2010)
cited in McC.
ch adversity affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which controls the release of stress hormones,
& psychiatric problems in adulthood (Heim et al., 2008)
really interesting...evidence brain affected, also genes play a role ! see article for refs
Good for TMAs
are generally understood to mean those influences that are likely to
children, increase the likelihood of harm to them, or maintain harm to them (Coie et al., 1993)* cited in M&O
physical harm can cause psychological damage and pyschological abuse can manifest to cause physical damage
one risk factor can be associated with more eg poverty = higher chance of illness, ill educated parents, poor sanitation, bad neighbourhood etc
original ref & this...
one risk factor is unlikely to cause issues if protective factors present but accumulatively risks can impact depending on the indiviual's vulnerability v resilience
Risk factors are cumulative and interactive, and tend to reinforce each other.
all have a
. above that negative impacts can manifest
differential sensitivity model
resilient people stay level, sensitive folk thrive in low stress and suffer in high risk/stress
TMA - DP allows us to see that adversity of being refugee can impact hugely on a sensitive/vulnerable indivual whilst iothers may be strong and resilient
Poor UK children -
are more likely to die in childhood accidents and to suffer from lower levels of good physical health (Montgomery, 2013).
many studies which point to the disproportionate effects that poverty and its associated risks of hunger, social inequality and poor health have on children. Even where family life and parenting are positive and supportive, poverty and disadvantage can still impact negatively on children’s development
SOCIAL RISK - POVERTY
poorer children start school. . . 18 months behind. . . middle-class peers (Waldfogel and Washbrook, 2010)
physical risks, but the shame and stigma associated with poverty carries psychological ones as well. eg free meals - makes them different too which is bad
Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystem (1992)
see diagram & explanation!!!
MM explains-imbalance at any level creates adversity and can cause problems
refugees have had upheaval in every area of their ecosystem!!!
five, nested environmental systems that influence a child’s development.
has it's critics (how categorize? causal effects etc) but is good for conceptualising the complexities
There is a complex array of risk and protective factors which moderate and mediate each other in different ways
No exposure to risk does not prepare one for adulthood (Luthar and Barkin, 2012) cited in MM
Arrubarrena (2014) 3 categories
eg divorce or a death = big but short lived if supported
chronic/ongoing, major developmental delay
eg new nursery or sibling becomes a learning experience.
says focuses on attachment yet is about physical and psychological problems
younger adopted better chance of negating ill effects- same will be for refugees!!!
London babies in 60s too
1/5 no problems(resilient)
Rutter et al. 2007 study
also check out ‘dandelion’ and ‘orchid’ children??
genes and disorganised attachment
(7-repeat) of the DRD4 gene – the growth of dopamine receptors
lots of secondary refs
- separate mind map!!!