HARDWARE AND OPERATING SYSTEMS (3- Software and operating systems…
HARDWARE AND OPERATING SYSTEMS
2- Computer elements
The microprocessor is an integrated circuit made up of millons of tiny transitors working tngether to process the instructions and data received from the memory.
2.2 Memory and units of storage
Cache memory: is a faster memory installed between the RAM and the microprocessor.
ROM BIOS: is a special read-only memory that checks the system automatically when you turn on your computer
RAM: Is the computer's main memory
Storage devices: we use data storage units to permanently save the RAM data when we turn off the computer. Magnetiks discs and optical discs.
2.3 Motherboard and connecting devices
Inside the computer you' ll find a lirge board; we call it the motherboard. Components:
Imput and output ports
Connecting devices, uses:
Using the external ports
By special connectors on the motherboard.
Using and expansion slot on the motherboard
We can also install new devices.
3- Software and operating systems
Operating system: manages the systems resources, making them available for use by the user and the applications.
Database management tools
Antivirus software, file compressors...
Programming languages: These programs can be used to create other programs and applications.
The operating system: the operating system is the first thing that appears when you turn on your cmputer and the last thing you see when you are turning it off. Different computers have different types of software but they all need an opperating system.
Functions of the operating system
Manages the memory and storage systems.
Provides an interface or working environment
Manages the microprocessor
Communication between applications and peripheral devices
1- Computer language and function
1.1- Computer functions
Storing data in the storage devices.
Processing data in the central prorcssing unit (CPU), using the micrroproressor and the memory.
Output of data using peripheral devices.
Input of data using peripheral devices
Binary System: computers only use the numbers 0 and 1
Units of information: bit (b), byte (B).
ASCII (American Standard code for lnforrnation Interchange)
4- Windows operating system
Istalling and uninstalling programs
Hard disk maintenance
Cleaning the hard disk
Defragmenting the hard disk
Detecting and repairing errors
5- Linux operating system :
Installing and uninstalling programs
Linux uses twi package managers to help uers automatically install applications dnwnloaded from the internet. As an example, we'll now learn how to install and uninstall a program in Linux using the first method. Linux will then downland the files required and install the new software. To uninstall the application.
How to keep your system up to date
6- Computer networks
It is a set of computers connected to each other so that they can share resources and exchange information. Types:
Metropolitan area networks
Wide area networks
6.1- Elements in a network
All computer networks have a logical component, which is an operating system and applications that work on a network and physical component connecting the different computers to each other.
6.2- Wireless networks
Wireless networks use electromagnetic waves to tansmit data. All computers need to have a wireless network card.
6.3- Shared Internet access
Computer network can connect to the Internet in two ways:
Using Internet Connection Sharing
Using a router
7- Sharing resources in Windows
Sharing a printer
With a shared printer, you can print documents from any computer in the network.
Sharing files and folders
We can let other network users see our files, and access files on other computers.
8- Sharing resources in Linux
Sharing a printer
To share a printer installed on another computer in the network, you need to install it as a network printer on you own computer.
To access a shared folder saved on another computer in the local netwoek.
Sharing a computer
Linux lets you share a computer with other users, but still keep your own configuration and personal files