"Can Hope be Disappointed? (Ernst Bloch) and Cruising Utopia (Jose Esteban Munoz)" Ernst Bloch talks about hope in terms of the idea that it can always be disappointed, as it "does not address itself to that which already exists." (341) Hope is "queerness" according to Munoz, it uncertain like Bloch says, and is full of anticipation. The texts examined in this course, especially those surrounding activism like ACT UP, bring about a feeling of hope for the future. It is possible that this hope will be disappointed, and it sometimes is when we witness moments that take us steps back in history like the Rodney King riots. Munoz says that "Bloch offers hope as a hermeneutic , and from the point of view of political struggles today, such a critical optic is nothing short of necessary in order to combat the force of political pessimism. Hope is a necessary emotion, one that enables us to be passionate, to be angry, and to push for the change and utopias we'd like to see in the world.