BIO NOTES (Adam Ungemach) (Organ systems (Digestive (Nutrition…
BIO NOTES (Adam Ungemach)
is the breakdown of food into smaller pieces without chemical change to the food molecules.
is the movement of small food molecules and ions through the wall of the intestine into the blood.
as the passing out of food that has not been digested or absorbed, as faeces, through the anus
The breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble molecules
is the movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells.
is the taking of substances, e.g. food and drink, into the body through the mouth.
the digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body.
the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
circulatory system is a network consisting of blood, blood vessels, and the heart. This network supplies tissues in the body with oxygen and other nutrients, transports hormones, and removes unnecessary waste products.
network of vessels through which lymph drains from the tissues into the blood.
nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe
skeletal system is the body system composed of bones and cartilage and performs the following critical functions for the human body: supports the body. facilitates movement. protects internal organs. produces blood cells.
endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things
The excretory system is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis. There are several parts of the body that are involved in this process, such as sweat glands, the liver, the lungs and the kidney system.The renal pelvis takes urine away from the kidney via the ureter.
organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body.
comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside.
includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails.
sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system.
Human Alimentary Canal
Solid food is chewed and cut into tiny pieces by the mouth
Gives more area for enzyme action
Saliva is secreted by the salivary gland and saliva mixes with the food in the mouth
bound by the cheeks of the face, the palate, and the flesh of the mandible, opening onto the mouth and the fauces, and containing the teeth, tongue, gums, and other structures
The stomach is a muscular bag that lies beneath the diaphragm and to the left side of the
The pyloric sphincter is a circular muscular valve that lies between the end of the stomach and the beginning of the small intestine. When the pyloric sphincter contracts, food
cannot enter into the small intestine and this helps to retain food for longer in the stomach.
When this circular muscle valve relaxes, food passes into the small intestine. The wall of the stomach contains gastric glands which produce gastric juice.
first part of the small intestine
located between the stomach and the middle part of the small intestine
food mix with bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices from the pancreas
Also Known as Small Intestine
helps to further digest food coming from the stomach and other parts of the small intestine.
Reabsorbes Water and Ions
Forms and Stores Feces
Stores and expels Feces
Opening for elimination of feces
Level of Organization
Association of cells with the same general structure and function
association of several tissue types that carry out a specific function
Smallest Unit of Life
Two or more organs that work together to carry out a general function
Atom and Molecule
Smallest unit of element of matter :
More than one atom in a stable association