Nervous System (Spinal Cord (Layers of Meninges (Arachnoid Mater (the…
relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body, to perform an action, to pass along messages from sensory receptors to the brain, and to coordinate reflexes
Layers of Meninges
the middle layer of the three cranial meninges
the delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord
the tough outermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord
Spaces and Ventricles
The ventricles of the brain are a communicating network of cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and located within the brain parenchyma. ... The choroid plexuses are located in the ventricles produce CSF, which fills the ventricles and subarachnoid space, following a cycle of constant production and reabsorption
Class or neurons
the neurons found in the human nervous system can be divided into three classes: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.
Motor neurons are a specialized type of brain cell called neurons located within the spinal cord and the brain.
Interneurons are the central nodes of neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS). They play vital roles in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain.
Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.
An action potential is part of the process that occurs during the firing of a neuron. During the action potential, part of the neural membrane opens to allow positively charged ions inside the cell and negatively charged ions out.This electrical impulse is carried down the nerve through a series of action potentials.
Neurotransmitters all serve a different purpose in the brain and body. Although there are several different minor and major neurotransmitters, we will focus on these major six: acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (more commonly referred to as GABA), and glutamate.
Divisions & Subdivisions of Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
connects the CNS to the rest of the body; made up of thick bundles of axons, called nerves, carrying messages back and forth between the CNS and the muscles, organs, and senses in the periphery of the body
Autonomic Nervous System
controls our internal organs and glands and is generally considered to be outside the realm of voluntary control.
associated with returning the body to routine, day-to-day operations
involved in preparing the body for stress-related activities
Somatic Nervous System
associated with activities traditionally thought of as conscious or voluntary. It is involved in the relay of sensory and motor information to and from the CNS; it consists of motor neurons and sensory neurons. Motor neurons, carrying instructions from the CNS to the muscles, are efferent fibers (efferent- moving away from). Sensory neurons, carrying sensory information to the CNS, are afferent fibers (afferent- moving toward).
Central Nervous System (CNS)
comprised of the brain and spinal cord
Drugs and Disease
Heroin and Prescription Opioids.
Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and Other Stimulants.
LSD, PCP, Ketamine, and Hallucinogens.
Epilepsy and Other Seizure Disorders
Parkinson’s and Other Movement Disorders
Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Major Functions of Nervous System
maintains body homeostasis with electrical signals;provides for sensation, higher mental functioning, and emotional response; activates muscles and glands
Major parts of brain
Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
Interprets language, words, Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip), Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory, Spatial and visual perception
Understanding language (Wernicke’s area), Memory, Hearing, Sequencing and organization
Personality, behavior, emotions, Judgment, planning, problem solving, Speech: speaking and writing (Broca’s area), Body movement (motor strip), Intelligence, concentration, self awareness