ENERGY AND ITS TRANSFORMATION (4- Non- conventional electric power plants,…
ENERGY AND ITS TRANSFORMATION
1- Energy sources
By use in each country
By environmental impact
By availability in nature and capacity for regeneration
Energy sources are natural resources from which we obtain different forms of energy that can be transformed for a specific use.
2.1- Electric power plants
Electric power plants are facilities where primary or secondary energy is transformed into electricity.
They use a turbine-alternator system
The turbine converts mechanical energy into the rotating movement
of a shaft
An alternator has a fixed part, called a stator, and a moving part, called a rotor, connected to the turbine shaft.
2.2- Transport and distribution of electrical energy
Electricity cannot be stored.
The transport involves several processes
Electric power plants are situated far away from the points where the energy is used.
3- Conventional electric power plants
3.1 Nuclear power plants
It includes a nuclear fission reactor that produces the pressurisedsteam
Uranium is the main fuel used.
3.2 Fossil fuel thermal power plants
Water is heated in a boiler by the heat generated from the combustion of a fossil fuel.
Combined cycle power plant
3.3 Hydroelectric power plants
It uses the potential energy provided by the height of the stored water in a dam, converting it into kinetic energy.
Tlis energy moves the blades of the turbine
Gravity-driven hydraulic power plants, pump-driven hydraulic power plants
4- Non- conventional electric power plants
The main disadvantage of these power plants is that they generate much less energy.
Their advantages are that they contaminate much less than conventional power plants, they use renewable sources and theyreduce the energy dependence of petroleum and natural gas.
4.1- Wind power plants and wind farms
These power plants use the kinetic energy uf the wind
Wind farms are a clean form of generating electncity
4.2- Solar power plants
These plants use the energy from the sun
Photo-thermal power plant or photovoltaic power plant
4.3- Geothermal power plants
These plants use the heat found at deep levels in the earth.
Geothermal energy may be used directly and indirectly
4.4- Biomass thermal power plants
Biomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes
4.5- Ocean power plants
These power plants use the energy from the seas and the oceans.