"SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY" ( (Poverty is a major factor and…
"SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY"
Poverty and Neighborhood dynamics are a major factor and cause of Social Disorganization and high rates of crime.
ROBERT J. SAMPSON
Conditions of poverty create barriers for institutions to socialize people into law-abiding citizens.
Values/Behaviors are passed from one generation to another, for individuals living in the same neighborhood or community.
Poverty is a major factor and cause of social disorganization and criminal behaviors.
Crime is a factor depending on neighborhood dynamics.
High rates of poverty in a neighborhood or community is known geographically to experience high rates of crime.
There is a link associated with the residential area of offenders and crimes committed in that specific area.
High rates of Single parenting and unemployment can create higher criminality rates.
Lack of parental supervision in a community of youth, impacts neighborhood dynamics and can create crime.
Clifford and Shaw observed neighborhoods with low socio-economic status.
Chicago School of Urban Sociology, developed the "Social Disorganization Theory" of Crime, in which Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay began their research.
Clifford and Shaw analyzed residential areas where juveniles were referred to Chicago court.
Clifford and Shaw analyzed various groups in Chicago.
KEY EVENT: Scholars Pratt & Cullen (2005), learned from their meta-analysis of seven macro-level criminal perspectives, "incarceration" was a negative factor to related high crime rates in neighborhoods.
IMPORTANT PEOPLE: Blau and Blau(1982), argued economic inequalities were associated and ascribed with characteristics of race and situations characterized by social disorganization.
Shaw/McKay: "Social disorganization is an important predictor of crime".
Shaw/McKay: "Social disorganization has impact on individuals in a community by the mediating processes".
Robert J. Sampson (1986): "Collective Efficacy"- Ability of members in a community, which help to control behavior of individuals or groups in the community.
Shaw/McKay: "Minorities with high rates of poverty, geographically will experience higher rates of crime".
): "Poverty Areas" tend to have high rates of residential mobility and racial heterogeneity that made it difficult for communities in those areas to avoid become socially disorganized.
Criminal traditions are passed to successive generations.
Shaw/McKay concluded from their research, "Crime was likely a function of neighborhood dynamics, not necessarily function of individuals in a neighborhood".
Shaw/McKay gained from their research, "Neighborhoods with high crime rates, remained with high crime rates regardless of which racial group resided in the neighborhood at the particular time".
Shaw/McKay also learned from their research on how neighborhood dynamics affects crime, that "Crime concentrated in particular areas of the city, remained stable with different population changes".
WORKS CITED: Walker, Samuel., Cassia Spohn, and Miriam DeLone. The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. Sixth. ed. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2016.
WORKS CITED: Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Literature Reviews. Vol. 5. Chapter 4. Social Disorganization Theory.
WORKS CITED: Shaw/McKay: Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas.