Chapter 9: Flowers and Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual Reproduction (…
Chapter 9: Flowers and Reproduction
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Types of Asexual Reproduction (1)fragmentation (2) budding (3)binary fission (4)parthenogenesis
Sexual Reproduction Link
Flower Structure and Cross-Pollination
Monoecious Species- having the stamens and the pistils in separate flowers on the same plant. Some include: cattails and corn.
Dioecious Species- having distinct male and female individual organisms. Dioecious reproduction is biparental reproduction.
cross-pollination is the pollination of a carpel by pollen from a different individual; self-pollination is pollination of a carpel by pollen by the same flower or another flower on the same plant
Animal pollination Flowers- animals, such as bees, butterflies, flies, and hummingbirds, transferring pollen from one flower to another.
Wind-pollinated Flowers- pollination of plants by means of pollen carried on the wind. Some flowers include: wheat, rice, corn, rye, barley, and oats.
Inflorescences and Pollination
Inflorescences are complex structures with many functions. At anthesis they present the flowers in ways that allow for the transfer of pollen and optimization of the plant's reproductive success.
Fruit Types and Seed Dispersal
True fruits- used to refer to fruits containing only ovarian tissue; Accessory fruits- (or false fruits) is used if any non ovarian tissue present.
simple fruit- develops from one single ovary or the fused ovaries of one flow, the most common kind. aggregate fruit- separate carpels of one gynoecium fuse during development, such as raspberries. multiple fruit- during development all individual fruits of an inflorescence fuse into one fruit, such as figs, mulberries and pineapples.
Classification: Dry- one that is not typically eaten by the natural seed-distributing animals; or fleshy- those that are eaten during the natural seed distribution process.
Further classification of dry fruits: Dehiscent fruits- break open and release the seeds, Indehiscent fruits- do not break open and release seeds.