MOTIVATION (CLASSICAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (McGregor’s Theory X and…
A set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE
P (PERFORMANCE) = M(MOTIVATION) x A(ABILITY)
CLASSICAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Having little ambition
Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
(motivation and job satisfaction)
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Need for achievement
Need for power
Need for affilation
Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory
The process of shaping behaviour by controlling the consequences of the behaviour.
Tools used to control the behaviour of employees are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,extinction and punishment
Adams’s Equity Theory
●Focuses on an individual’s perceived perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work input.
●Three probabilities of outcome may arise
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Focuses on three relationships:
–Effort-performance relationship (Expectancy)
–Performance-reward relationship (Instrumentality)
–Reward-personal goals relationship (Valence)
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
-Human behaviour is caused by personal, behavioural and environmental influences.
-People learn by observing others.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
An assumption that there are five levels of needs within an individual which are arranged in a hierarchy.
Self -actualization needs
LOWER- ORDER NEEDS
Intentions to work towards a goal are a major source of motivation.
Five criteria, known as SMART must be considered in setting the goal.
Realistic and relevant
NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Leads to achievement of organizational goals
Builds friendly relationships
Improves the level of efficiency among employees
Attracts people to join an organization and remain in it
Maintains and develops n organization's human resources