Phoenicia: 11-8th centuries (Expansion (Chronology (Bichrome ware: 11th C.…
Phoenicia: 11-8th centuries
Archeology: almost nothing.
Some tombs, some of them are of kings
300 foot-long mound of murex shells
Temple of Eshnun (=Asclepios =Apollo)
King Hiram (1Kgs)
Phoenicia from the 8th c. on
Turns towards west, permanent colonies
Not economic or political refugees
heavy tributes = they want to satisfy the needs of the Assyrian kings by the acquisitions
They wanted to go
Export of raw materials + good geographical location (Greeks, Nubian, Etruscan)
8th c. Necropolis
Carthage = qart hadast = New City
8th c. Tophet
Good soil, plenty of water, lot of fish, pasturage possibilities + geographic advantages
At the beginning, the Phoenician king's 'shoken'
Then 'shufetim' + council of elders = dual magistracy
Aristotle (4th c.): elective magistrates, senate of 300 members, commission of 104 members, general assembly of free citizens
Further expansionist attempts
Hanno 6-5th c.
Recolonisation of the Atlantic coast of Morocco?
Himilco 6-5th c.
Galicia - search for the primary producers to exclude Spanish intermediaries
They were not explorers and adventurers, but businessmen, voyagers, and artisans, who were looking for raw materials, new markets, and places convenient for manufacturing, stocking goods, and trading.
N: Sidon (the elder brother; Gen 10:15; Iliad)
Bichrome ware: 11th C.
Philistea, South-Negev, Egypt, Cyprus
Black-on-red (Cypro-phoenitian) ware: 10-9th C.
Phoenitia, Cyprus, Palestina
Cyprus, North-Africa, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain
In mainland, as far as Assyiria
Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek...
Bilingual inscription mid-9th. C.
Slave trade document ~700
Neo-Hittites: writing, language, culture
Sam'al royal inscription ~825
Carchemish dedication to Melqart ~800
Tarshish: South-Spain ~9th C.