Seed plant II: Angiosperms (Monocots (They have adventitious roots., The…
Seed plant II: Angiosperms
Classification of flowering plants
In angiosperms, fruits enclose and protect the seeds
Their size ranges from tiny, almost microscopic Wolfia to tall trees of Eucalyptus
Two major groups, or classes,: the Dicots (Magnoliopsida) and the Monocots (Liliopsida).
3 types of Classification system
Artificial Systems based on superficial features.
Natural systems based on form relationships.
Phylogenetic systems based on evolutionary and genetic relationships.
Angiosperms include a staggering number of genera and species
Fruit protect the developing embryo and serve as an agent of dispersal
A plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel
Two novel structures that ensure reproductive success: flowers and fruit.
From two Greek words: angeion, meaning "vessel," and sperma, meaning "seed."
Examples: Apple (Malus pumila) Brinjal (Solanum melongena)
Contains living descendants of that originated while angiosperms were young clade
The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading
Flowering plants at successive occasions before the appearance of the "true" dicots (Eudicots).
the basal angiosperms do not fit perfectly into either category,
Once grouped with dicots due to their leaf venation and possession of multiple seedling leaves
Flattened stamens, wide filaments numerous tepals; many carpels and alternate spirally arranged leaves
They have tap roots.
The leaves exhibit reticulate (net-like) venation.
The flowers are tetramerous or pentamerous
The vascular bundles are arranged in a ring
The seeds are with two cotyledons
Small order, highly modified, mostly parasitic
stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs, male gametophytes of three cells, and female gametophytes of seven cells
They have adventitious roots.
The leaves are simple with parallel venation.
The flowers are trimerous, 3 members in each floral whorl.
The vascular bundles are scattered in the ground tissue
Examples include Cereals, bamboos, sugarcane, palms, banana, lilies and orchids
The seeds of monocotyledons are with one cotyledon as the name indicates.
Stamens with 2 pairs of pollen sac