UNIT 1.4 Crime - 1700-1900 (Definitions of Crime (Gone: Witchcraft (the…
UNIT 1.4 Crime - 1700-1900
Definitions of Crime
the Witchcraft Act (1735)
abolished anti-witchcraft laws.
The Last person to be executed
for witchcraft was Janet Horne in 1727.
New: Unauthorised political meetings.
The controversial Peterloo Massacre of 1819
(which is what led to this becoming a crime).
The Six Acts (1819)
banned political meetings, as authorities were worried about anti-government ideas
New: Joining a Trade Union
, poor farm workers set up an organisation asking for more pay and protection for workers
as it could make businesses owned by rich people less profitable
Gone: Petty Treason
A Petty Treason
was killing someone such as your husband or social superior (eg Landlord). It was seen worse than murder, and punished worse
It was abolished under the
Offences Against the Person Act (1828)
The Bloody Code (1688-1823)
carried the Death Penalty from 1815.
The Death Penalty was carried out
in public until 1868
(example of harsh punishments)
Bloody Code Ended 1823
Involved sending petty criminals to America
End of Transportation (1868),
were sent to prisons instead.
Public Execution end (1868)
deterrence stopped working
, and pick pocketing even took place during an execution.
Ended under the
Capital Punishment Amendment Act
Reason Why Punishments changed:
Rehabilitation and Reformation.
The Value of Hard Work was introduced to criminals in prisons
Authorities were under pressure from the public to change.
Caused the end of public executions
Nature of Criminal Activity
Hysteria about the Level of Crimes (That were sensationalised in the media)
The Waltham Blacks (poaching gang) caused a law to be created, the
Black Act (1723)
, that created lots of crimes that were punishable by death
Jack the Ripper
murders made it seem like violent crime has increased but actually has significantly decreased
Highway robbery became more common before 1750
The rise of road-building during the 18th century. (11,500 miles of new roads were build by 1772)
New types of traffic, Stagecoaches were introduced.
Public sympathy and Toleration,
Highway Robbery became less common after 1750
Railways replaced roads, which meant less use of roads
Increased policing= more likely to get caught
Witchcraft (1736), Vagabondage (not a priority in 1700-1800) and Heresy (1559) were abolished
What was a CONTINUITY
used in large towns and cities,
local taxes used to pay them
during the day,
watched over certain buildings
replaced by the police force
authority law enforcement.
Judged most serious cases in county assizes.
Justices of the peace
punishing minor offences, issuing arrest warrants.
authority law enforcement
was put down w the army.
eg. crushed the crows during
the Peterloo Massacre (1819)
1700s- early 1800s Harsh punishments were relied on
Parish Constables removed in 1856 only
What was NEW
Bow Street Runners (1749)
- Set up by
Paid by Government.
Arrested criminal in the London Areas.
Patrolling streets in the evening
Bow Street Horse Patrols (1754)
- Set up
team of policemen that
hunted down highwaymen
Metropolitan Police Force (1829)
- Set up by
first proper police force in Britain,
their main role was to
. They were
than the Bo. Str. Run.
Criminal Investigantions Department/CID (1878)
Replaced the Detective Department
in 1878. It's known as
'Scotland Yard' Today
. They were
rather than crime-preventers
Police Act (1856)
Forced all local authorities in Britain to have their own Police Force
- used in
community law enforcement
. hunted down stolen goods in return for rewards.
were used less
thief takers were corrupt
the level of