Spoken Language (Non-Fluency features (Informal words and phrases: …
Voiced pauses 'um'
False starts/self corrections
Vague language 'and so on'
Hedges 'perhaps' 'possibly'
High frequency lexis
Informal words and phrases:
Informal term of address"pet"
a lack of rhetorical and literacy features
Informal delivery of words and phrases
Ellipsis "like a drink"
Structures of conversations
Three part exchange (initiation, response, feedback
Declaratives used as interrogatives
Ways in which speech and writing are similar and different
Writing enjoys social power, permanence and cultural prestige
EQUAL BUT DIFFERENT
In speech we can detect thought and feeling in immediate, direct action
Writing is a much lonelier business - Michael Halliday (linguist) distinguishes speech as interpersonal and writing as ideational .
Writing needs to be more explicit
Unwritten rules of Conversations
Clarity for your specific audience
Appropriate register or tone
Taking turns to speak
Showing interest in what's being said
Glossary of useful terms and concepts
- people work together to build a conversation
- one or more people do not apply the unwritten rules
Competitive - someone
strives to dominate the conversation
- context says that one person will do most of the speaking
Holding the floor
- person who is currently speaking is said to be doing this
Quantity - saying too little or too much
Quality - speak the truth
Manner - be clear and avoid ambiguity