Formation of Western Europe (England and France Develop (In the 800s,…
Formation of Western Europe
Church Reform and the Crusades
Problems in the church such as social status had affected the life of the church. Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice called simony.
Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests.
Gothic was known as the new style of architecture, Cathedrals had originated through Gothic and it had spread through all of Europe.
Crusades had started to gain control of the Holy Land over the next 300 years that Pope Urban II had started.
The crusades had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives, Muslims controlled Palestine and threatened Constantinople.
The Reconquista was a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
The Muslims held a tiny kingdom of Granada then in 1492 Granada fell to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish Monarchs.
In 1187, Europeans were shocked to learn that Jerusalem itself had fallen to a Kurdish warrior and Muslim and leader Saladin.
Changes in Medieval Society
Europe's great revival would have been impossible without better ways of farming. Expanding civilization required an increased food supply. A warmer climate which lasted from about 800 to 1200
switch to horsepower. for hundreds of years, peasants had depended on oxen to pull their plows. Oxen lived on the poorest straw and stubble so they were easy to keep
The Three-Field System. Around AD 800 some villages began to organize their lands into three fields instead of two. Under this new three field system farmers could grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year.
a guild was an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
fairs and trade. Most trade took place in towns. Peasants from nearby manors traveled to town on fair days, hauling items to trade.
increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in europe taken together this expansion of trade and business is called the commercial revolution
England and France Develop
In the 800s, Britain was battered by fierce raids of Danish Vikings. Only Alfred the Great, Anglo-Saxon king from 871 to 899, managed to turn back the Viking invaders.
The invader was William, duke of Normandy, who became known as William the Conqueror.
William the Conqueror's descendants owned land both in Normandy and in England. The English king Henry 11 added to these holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine from France.
Over the centuries, case by case, the rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law that became known as common law.
Hundreds of years before American colonists revolted against the crown, rebel nobles in England drafted the Magna Carta to curtail the power of their own tyrannical monarch–King John.
In 1295, Edward summoned two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every county to serve a parliament or legislative group. This new government system was used to later model newer kings.
Hugh Capet, an undistinguished duke from the middle of France, succeeded Louis the Sluggard after his death. The Capet family ruled only a small territory, but at its heart stood Paris.
Another Capetian, Phillip 11, who ruled from 1180 to 1223, was one of the most powerful rulers in the Capet family.
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The Hundred Years War and the Plague
a church divided. at the beginning of the 1300s the age of faith still seemed strong. soon however both the pope and the church were in desperate trouble.
pope and king collide. in 1300 pope boniface VIII attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had
avignon and the great schism in 1305, philip IV persuaded the college of cardinals to choose a french archbishop as the new pope
scholars challenge church authority. The papacy was further challenged by an englishman named john wycliffe. He preached that jesus christ, not the pope was the rue head of the church
the plague strikes. During the 1300s an epidemic struck parts of asia, North africa and europe
origins and impact of the plague. in 1346, plague struck mongol armies laying siege to kaffa, a port on the black sea