concept map, Classification and Systematics (Levels of Taxonomic…
Classification and Systematics
represent the divergence of one taxon into two
a feature present in one or several derived members of a group, but not present in the ancestral members
all of the branches that lead from it constitute a clade.
extend from any particular point
one that does not contain all the descendants of the most common ancestor
diagram that shows evolutionary patterns by means of series of branches.
any ancestor (node) & all of the branches that lead from it
Cladograms and taxonomic categories
living descendants of those early-diverging clades
eg: angiosperms are either monocot or dicot.
species that can interbreed.
a specimen obtained from the same plant/clone as the type specimen
a single specimen that is the absolute standard for the species & its scientific name
Levels of Taxonomic Categories
genera are natural
all common ancestor are in same genus.
all species include genus
related to eachother by common ancesor.
members evolved from different ancestor
closely related species grouped together
well defined , with widespread
composed of one, several or often many genera.
level above family are order, class, division and kingdom
can be traced directly to Carolus Linnaeus
inheritance of acquired characteristics
all cells of the body produce fluids
specie refers to the money,
can interbreed with eachother.
most fundamental level of classification.
binomial system of nomenclature
every species have had both number of genus name and a species epithet
Other type of classification system.
Classification systems of fossils
to identify both its ancestors and its relatives that might have later evolved in the species.
form genera all fossils with the same basic form or structure classified together.
goal is to understand the evolution of the fossil
third type of classification used for fossil organisms.
Artificial systems of classification
follow the organic history of the organisms.
goal is to identify plant by means of obvious characters such as flower color and plant habitat.
easy to observe
only used as adjuncts to natural systems.
common ancestral group.
or homologous feature.
descended from common ancestor.
complicated by the fact that plants can resemble each other for 2 distinct reasons
they have undergone convergent evolution.
method of analyzing these photogenic evolutionary relationships
understand each of these evolutionary lines
adopted goals at the end of 19th century,
assigning plants name on the basis of phylogenetic relationships.
Natural system of classification.
scientist who specialize in classification and naming
hereditay relationships of any group of organisms
reflects the relationship.
major lines of evolution.
based on levels of evolutionary advancement
established clade of true plants
ex: protistans were placed together bc they had low lvl (low grade) of evolutionary advancement