Neuromuscular Junction: Clostridium Tetani (upstream causes (direct-…
Neuromuscular Junction: Clostridium Tetani
direct- Tetanus toxin is produced by clostridium tetani, which resides in soil. Hypertonicity and spasms develop when the toxin blocks the release of inhibitory transmitters at the NMJ.
indirect- The patient got a tattoo from a not so good place and the needle was not clean causing him to get it.
When spores enter a deep flesh wound, they grow into bacteria that can produce tetanospasmin.
The toxin impairs nerves that control your muscles.
It can cause muscle stiffness and spasms which are the major signs and symptoms.
muscular system & cardiovascular system
excitation contraction coupling
excitatory vs. inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
Muscular system permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body. The cardiovascular system permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and the cells in the body to provide nourishment.
There are three basic structural and functional classification of neurons. Unipolar neurons lack dendrites and have a single axon, and are also sensory neurons. Multipolar neurons have many processes and serve principally as motor neurons. Bipolar neurons have two extensions and are sensory neurons for transmission of sense.
Excitation contraction coupling is the process of converting a stimulus to a mechanical response. It is the link between the action potential generated in the sarcolemma and the start of muscle contraction. The neurotransmitter ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft, causing the depolarization of sarcolemma. It stimulates the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium causing muscle contraction. ECC starts with electrical excitation of the sarcolemmal membrane, through calcium mobilization to contraction. The ryanodine receptors are ion channels that open in the presence of elevated calcium and release calcium from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. ECC in skeletal muscle involves a set of sequential steps. When a muscle cell is depolarized by an action potential, calcium ions enter the cell through voltage sensing DHPRs, which are L type calcium channels located in transverse tubules.
Summation is the effect of electrical impulses on a neuromuscular junction between nerve cell and muscle cell. Individually the stimuli cannot evoke a response, but collectively they can generate a response.
Inhibitory synapses decrease the likelihood of the firing action potential of a cell while excitatory synapses increase its likelihood. Inhibitory synapses cause the neurotransmitters in the postsynaptic membrane to depolarize. The flow of ions that causes an EPSP is an EPSC. At excitatory synapses, the ion channel typically allows sodium into the cell, generating an excitatory postsynaptic current. The depolarizing current causes an increase in membrane potential, the EPSP.
Clostridium tetani is an obligate anaerobic bacteria whose spores produce two distinct toxins (tetanolysin & tetanospasmin) which cause local tissue destruction and clinical tetanus. Tetanus toxin is produced by the anaerobic bacillus Clostridium tetani, which commonly resides in soil. Hypertonicity and spasms develop when tetanus toxin blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters at the NMJ.