Guide to writing academic papers, Types of academic paper (Literature…
Guide to writing academic papers
Types of academic paper
a presentation which summarizes the essential contents of one or
several monographs or scientific articles. In a literature review you must clearly point out the arguments and interpretations presented are your own
Learning (lecture diary)
: a tool for evaluating and reinforcing. personal learning. Its purpose is to record and reflect on what has been learned through
: a piece of writing on a particular topic or theme. The objective of an essay is
often to survey the literature or other material on a particular topic or theoretical or
: it prepares you for more far-reaching research. Its aim is to
help you to understand the nature of larger research reports, such as articles or
: The general requirements for Bachelor’s and Master’s theses can be found in the curricula
guides and on the School of Management website. It is important to note that a Bachelor’s thesis is not intended as a small-scale Master’s
Literature essay as compensatory work:
It is possible to compensate for book exams (one or several books) by writing an essay.
The purpose of a bibliography is to provide the reader with details of the sources used in
an academic text.
All the books, articles, archive material, manuscripts, interviews, Internet documents, etc.that have been referred to in the text must be included in the
The bibliography is placed at the end of the paper before the appendices and the entries are listed in alphabetical order by (the first) author’s last
Structure and form of academic paper
Theory and review of relevant literature
Research problem and questions
Research material and methods
A paper should go straight to the point.
You should try to find the essential, most representative and most recent
You should strive to explain things in your own words. Lengthy verbatim
quotations should be avoided.
Since you must analyze a source from the perspective of the problems
investigated in your study,you should include and scrutinize only relevant
pieces of information.
Layout of academic papers
Chapter headings should be short and encapsulate the subject discussed in the
following text. The chapter headings should also be connected with the theme of
Main headings and subheads should be written in different styles; for example,
main headings in UPPER CASE and subheads in lowercase or Title Case.
There should be no more than three heading levels.
Chapters should be numbered.Headings should be numbered with Arabic
numerals – not with Roman numbers or letters.The number of a heading should
always end with a full stop.
If the paper includes tables and figures, the captions of these should be precise
and relevant to the content of the tables and figures.
The cover sheet of an academic paper should include information about the course
in question, the title of the paper and the author’s name.
The table of contents page should follow the cover sheet.
The page numbering of an academic paper should begin with the first text page.
References and citations
Citations and your own text
: the main purpose of
referencing systems is to enable the reader to check what sources have been used
in the text.
: a textual reference consists simply of who has written the text being cited and in which year, the reference should also include the page number(s) on which the original text
Footnotes or endnotes
:are placed, respectively, at the bottom of the page and at the end
of the text.
In-text citations, i.e. embedded references
: is usually used in theses distinguishes between in-text citations that refer to an individual sentence and those referring to a longer section.
Referring to different sources
: includes Single-authored source, Source with two authors, Multiple-authored source, Chapters in edited volumes, Classics, Newspaper articles, General references to a whole book or article, etc.