Psychology part #1 (stereotypes (In groups (people like ourselves, share…
Psychology part #1
Rider: the conscious; verbal, thinking brain
Elephant: the automatic; emotional, visceral brain
Emotions & Identity
more likely to have empathy for those most like ourselves
have an emotional reaction before we meet people
everyone has bias but how do we remove implicit bias?
acceptance of bias and intention setting
have compassion with yourself and everyone else
we are hard wired to feel who we define as "others as a threat" those outside our tribe
who we define outside is because of socialisation
people like ourselves
share the same sense of normal/ rules of the game
nurtures in group bias
protected double standard for own groups
we view out groups differently than ourselves
groups have less experience socializing with
interactions create discomfort (both conscious and unconscious)
tend to judge out groups harsher, less forgiveness
Out group activity
reactive, defensive, awkward
Out groups stand out
differences trouble us in some way
we more easily register out groups as threats
we notice differences in speech patterns, dress, food choices, and social custom
out group behaviour feel more obvious
micro-inequities less eye contact sitting further away
escalation to feeling threat, aggression
example teachers, police shootings
Relationship building and conflict skills
Wisdom makes you a more rational thinker and a better decision maker. (not intelligence)
Common modern issues have costs and require wisdom to solve.
Wise reasoning characteristics include
Intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty, consideration of diverse view points, and an attempt to integrate these view points.
Fostering wise reasoning can stop the tendency to hate out groups
Wise reasoning may broaden ones perspectives
People with low wise reasoning have unfavourable attitudes towards people who are not on their sides.
Promoting wise reasoning allows us to overcome polarisation for more amicable solutions that benefit the society at large.
Zero-sum perspective= inter group conflict emerges when resources gained by one party are viewed as losses by another party
Intelligence, and mega cognitive reasoning equals wise reasoning.
To have wisdom you need knowledge + logic (but should not be confused as being the same thing)
Wisdom varies from person to person based on personal experiences.
Tested to see if he could associate certain stimuli with responses
Unconditioned response: the natural response to an unconditioned stimulus
The dog drooling due to the food
Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that naturally trigger a response
The dogs food
Conditioned stimulus: an originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
The sound of the bell accompanying the food
Conditioned response: the learned response to a previously neutral response
The dog drooling at the sound of the bell
Pavlov trained a dog to drool at the sound of a bell after causing it to associate the bell with food
He used rats and pigeons to study how the use of punishments and rewards can influence behaviour (operant conditioning)
Created "the Skinner Box"
A chamber that had a bar or pedal on one wall that released food when pressed which trains the rat by rewarding it with food
Extinction : when the reward is taken away and the behaviour stops
John B Watson
Conducted the "Little Albert" experiment
Conditioned the fear of animals in an infant by pairing a loud noise with the appearance of a rat
Proved that humans could be conditioned, not just dogs
Behaviourism's use in the military
Soldiers would beat prisoners to death and their friends would cheer them on, they would also get rewards like comfort girls and meals.
Military changing bullseye targets to man shaped silhouettes, the conditioned response would be to shoot the target when it pops up.
in bootcamp the soldiers heads was shaved, they were herded together naked and they dressed alike. They loose all individuality.
Overcome functional fixedness
carrot and stick- sweeter carrot or a sharper stick
Ikea effect - very difficult to assemble the pieces but is happier with the furniture when its done because more work was put into the final product
people work harder
People work less
Autonomy - the urge the direct our own lives
Google has 20% time where employees can work on whatever they want to
Mastery - the desire to get better at something that matters
Purpose - the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves
Impact of Behaviourism
Can be applied to places like the classroom to modify behaviour
Limitations of Behaviourism
Only looks at behaviour
Operant conditioning only works when there is no creative thinking required
IQ Genetics, genomics, epigenetics, and environment
Epigenetics: the chemicals marks on DNA that instruct a cell which genes to ignore, which to turn on, and when/how the environment changes our genetic expression.
Genomics: every person's genome has the same genes in the same order, but differences in sequence of bases make people unique.
DNA: a molecule that makes up anything and everything. It's made of four tiny blocks called nucleotides, and each building block has a backbone and chemical base that are represented by the letters A,C, G, T. DNA molecules have two strands that are joined together through complementary base pair. A pairs with T and C pairs with G. Uniformed shape, typically made with millions of nucleotides.
RNA: a molecule that gives instructions to proteins. Ribose backbone, A, T, C, U, the U in place of the T, only some are complementary paired, varied/irregular, much smaller than DNA, and typically made of hundreds or thousands nucleotides.
Proteins: makes up hair, muscles, bones, and fingernails and carry out most of the body's functions. Amino acids form proteins in a variety of shapes. Each protein is made up of 20 amino acids.
We predicted that we had 80-100 thousand genes and that each gene was associated and carried out an attribute. The reality was that we have 20 thousand genes, which proves that there are multiple genes spread across to create one attribute.
Parasidic DNA (DNA that looks like a virus), makes up 50-60%of our genomes, but we still don't know it's function.
An average gene is 10 000 units of information.
Our environment can change our genetic expression. Epigenetics is creating changes in genetic expression through environment.
In the case of the rat pups, when they were licked frequently, methyl is released in the rat's genes, and that switches on the GR gene, because the GR gene is compressed by methyl. The GR gene helps to calm anxiety in rats, and this leads into adulthood.
over the past few decades there has been a steady increase in IQ scores in the United States, a trend known as the Flynn Effect.
identical twins who were raised in different homes have a statistically significant similarity in their IQs.
the issue of nature vs. nurture in the role of intelligence does not have a clear winner: both are important factors. what psychologists are still trying to determine is just how much influence each exerts.
aberham mazlo: self-acculization; hierachy of needs
Carl Rogers: Client Centered therapy: realizing potential in him or hers growth in self-awarness
harry harlow: orphaned monkeys preferred a warm clothed replacement mother over a cold mother with milk, this disproves the theory that you need basic rights to be happy., motivated
victor frankl: believed that people need to have hope, and something to look forward to, to keep happy and motivated and provide meaning to someones life
Alfred Adler proposed that motivation was created threw wanting power
client centred model, creates a warm enviroment in which clients express any feeling comfortably. After expressing these the goal is for clients to realize the underlying issues of there emotions
Gerald Etcherhoff found that 25% of people create memories by seeing someone else do something on t.v
Flash Bulb - ask participants where they were and what they were doing during a significant event over a period of time, most answers changed significantly over the first year and 60% of answers changed. (911 experiment)
People are confident that their false memories are true.
Every time we retrieve a memory it can be changed by new information that we apply to our memory.
Brian Williams was in a helicopter many kilometres behind another helicopter that was shot down in the war. He arrived at the scene and was told what happened. He reported the story from his perspective and over time the story became more exciting and detailed. He created a false memory of him being in the shot down helicopter until others in the helicopter said he was not there.
Social Cognitive theory
perspective on personality that takes a persons motivation, environment and behaviour into account.
cognitive psychology is the study of how the brain learns
Elizabeth Loftus:Lost in the mall: Loftus shared childhood memories with participants and added a made up lost in the mall story, 29% of participants believed that they were lost in the mall as a child and had false memories on the event. Study proved that people can remember a past that did not happen to them.
Id is your sub concious
Born with it
Ego is your judge
You get it
Super Ego is your internalized rules
Develop it through life
Jung said that not everything is solved sexually
Also said its a Collective Unconcious
The idea that every man wants to kill his father and marry his mother.
Everything we do is do do with sexual things
in order to be scientific it has to be falsafiable
the capacity to makw optimal decisions needed to meet our goals given the resources we have
Heuristics - quick and easy rules of thumb that can skew our reasoning.
anchoring - the arbitrary value planted in our minds which anchors our judgement.
ex. seeing an original price of something that is now on sale anchors your perception of what an acceptable price is
Availability - overestimating certain risks based on how easily the dangers come to mind due to their vividness.
ex. people are more scared of flying than driving because plane crashes are more emotive but, flying is actually much safer than driving.
Framing - the fact that you may change your opinion based on the way information is phrased.
ex. if you're going into a surgery and are told that 400/600 people will die, you're less likely to agree to the surgery than if you were told that 200 people would live.
Sunk Cost Fallacy - reluctance to give up on a failing investment even if we lose more trying to sustain it.
ex. the gambling fallacy - if we lose 7 times in a row we are more likely to keep playing because we assume we will win the next round even though the odds don't change.
Dual Process Thinking
System #2 - slow, analytical, deliberative thinking.
use system #2 to support system #1
this means we don't rethink our intuitions, we defend them.
System #1 - fast thinking, intuitive, automatic.
limited to system #1
even if we are reflective enough to detect when intuitions are wrong and override them.
if someone is more intelligent, they may form greater facts to support their views
being unreasonably irrational
a mismatch of good abstract thinking, but bad with rationality
behaving so you get exactly what you want using the resources present
how well your beliefs map onto the actual social structure of the world.