Deafness and Hearing Loss (Characteristics (Social and Emotional (The…
Deafness and Hearing Loss
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet opened the American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb (now the American School for the Deaf) on April 15, 1817
During the late 19th century, debate erupted about whether students who were deaf or hard of hearing should use sign language or oral language.
Public Law (P.L.) 94-142 (now the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA) was passed in 1975
3 viewpoints (a) a disability, impairment, disorder, or ailment; (b) a logistical problem, especially in terms of contact with the hearing community; or (c) a social community/culture in its own right
describe themselves as being deaf, Deaf, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, or having a hearing disorder
Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section.
Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, [and] that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Hearing impairment—An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance, in the most severe case because the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing. (p. 546)
Deafness—Having a hearing impairment which is so severe that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing (with or without amplification) and which adversely affects educational performance. (p. 546)
Hard of hearing—Having a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which adversely affects the student’s educational performance, but which is not included under the definition of “deaf.”
Deaf with a capital D. This term is used to refer to members of the Deaf community who embrace Deaf culture, a linguistic minority culture within a larger community
Deafness is not perceived as a disability
Prevelance of hearing loss
34 million persons in the United States have a hearing loss
16.9% of children ages 6 to 19 have some degree of hearing loss
1.5 out of every 1,000 school-age children have an educationally significant hearing loss
less than 2% of all school-age students with disabilities ages 6 to 21 in U.S. schools are served under the disability category of hearing impairment. This represents a total of 69,220 students in public schools.
suggests that approximately 40% of all students who are deaf or hard of hearing have one or more additional, educationally significant disabilities
prior to speech and language development
prenatal infections, illnesses, or conditions occurring at the time of birth or shortly thereafter
after speech and language development
result of a disease or an injury.
Conductive hearing loss. A conductive hearing loss occurs when a problem of the outer or middle ear prevents sound from being conducted to the inner ear.
Sensorineural hearing loss. A sensorineural hearing loss is caused by a problem in the inner ear or along the nerve pathway to the brain stem.
Mixed hearing loss. A mixed hearing loss involves both a conductive and a sensorineural loss
A bilateral hearing loss is a loss in both ears; a unilateral hearing loss refers to a loss in only one ear
reduction in quantity and quality of direct and vicarious experiences
hearing loss presents a potential barrier to communication, which in turn influences most areas of development, including those related to academic achievement
Social and Emotional
The manner in which each of us understands others, our culture, and ourselves is strongly affected by direct interactions as well as incidental learning
parents who have more restrictive rules for behavior, and parents who are unable to communicate expectations about social interactions
Socialization in educational settings
Lag behind peers, hard time understanding The Positive Behavior Supports
checks the student’s vision and requests information about the student’s overall health.,
intelligence test is administered, as is an individual achievement test
Inability to recognize most words spoken at a conversational level in a quiet room without the use of assistive devices A significant receptive or expressive language delay Impairment of speech articulation, voice, or fluency A significant discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal performance on an intelligence test Significant delay in the development of reading skills because of language deficit or overall significantly lower than expected academic achievement Inattention or serious behavior problems related to the hearing loss
Preferred communication needs of the child and family
Severity of hearing loss and potential for using residual hearing
Social, emotional, and cultural needs, including opportunities for peer interactions and communication
To help the family understand hearing loss and gain confidence as parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing To help the young child who is deaf or hard of hearing learn to communicate, to use any available hearing, and to interact socially To help the young child become a fully participating member of the family
early intervention specialist
Elementary and secondary education
General Education Classroom
General Education Classroom with Supplementary Instruction
Separate Class for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
12% of students who are deaf or hard of hearing attend a special school that serves only students with significant hearing loss
Technology to communicate
Transition and adulthood
Recommended education practices
Integrated Vocabulary and Concept Development
Experiential Ladder of Learning
Lecture, simulation, visual, photos, models, tangible materials, direct experiences
Visual Teaching Strategies
sign, finger-spelling, and speech reading
equipment such as interactive whiteboards, document cameras, bulletin boards, computers, and televisions
materials including pictures, illustrations, artifacts, computer graphics, and films with captions
hard for others to accept
how to communicate
Yet, as previously noted, less than 10% of children who are deaf or hard of hearing have parents who both have a hearing loss
remember that unless you have a significant hearing loss or are the parent of such a child, you do not understand their experience
try to get to know the child more and their family.
Trends and issues
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening
ASL is the primary language of instruction and that English is taught as a second language through reading and writing print.
Respect for the language of the student (ASL) Incorporating Deaf heritage information into teaching Using ASL to increase understanding of content information Increasing the complexity and metalinguistic knowledge of ASL students Developing a strong metalinguistic awareness of English and how it is used in different settings and situations