Muscular system ( (LEG AND FOOT, Abductor Digiti Minimi Muscle of Foot,…
LEG AND FOOT
Abductor Digiti Minimi Muscle of Foot
Adductor Brevis Muscle
Adductor Longus Muscle
Adductor Magnus Muscle
Biceps Femoris Muscle (Long Head)
Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon
Dorsal Interosseous Muscles of Foot
Extensor Digitorum Brevis Muscle
Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle
Extensor Digitorum Muscle
Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle
Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle
Flexor Retinaculum of Foot
Gastrocnemius Muscle (Lateral Head)
Gastrocnemius Muscle (Medial Head)
Gluteus Maximus Muscle
Gluteus Minimus Muscle
Inferior Extensor Retinaculum
Lumbrical Muscles of Foot
Peroneus Brevis Muscle
Peroneus Longus Muscle
Peroneus Tertius Muscle
Quadriceps Femoris Tendon
Rectus Femoris Muscle
Superior Extensor Retinaculum
Tibialis Anterior Muscle
Tibialis Posterior Muscle
Vastus Lateralis Muscle
Vastus Medialis Muscle
ARM AND HAND
Abductor Hallucis Muscle
Biceps Brachii Muscle (Long Head)
Biceps Brachii Muscle (Short Head)
Digital Fibrous Sheaths
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Muscle
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Tendon
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscle
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle
Extensor Digiti Minimi Muscle
Extensor Hallucis Brevis Muscle
Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscle
Extensor Pollicis Brevis Muscle
Extensor Retinaculum of Hand
Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis Muscle of Hand
Flexor Digitorum Profundus Muscle
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Muscle
Flexor Pollicis Brevis Muscle
Flexor Retinaculum of Hand
Lumbrical Muscles of Hand
Opponens Pollicis Muscle
Palmar Interosseous Muscles
Palmaris Longus Muscle
Pronator Quadratus Muscle
Pronator Teres Muscle
Triceps Brachii Muscle (Lateral Head)
Triceps Brachii Muscle (Long Head)
Triceps Brachii Muscle (Medial Head)
HEAD AND NECK
Clavicular Head of Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Depressor Anguli Oris Muscle
Depressor Labii Inferioris Muscle
Frontal Belly of Epicranius Muscle (Frontalis Muscle)
Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi Muscle
Levator Labii Superioris Muscle
Occipital Belly of Epicranius Muscle (Occipitalis Muscle)
Orbicularis Oculi Muscle
Orbicularis Oris Muscle
Semispinalis Capitis Muscle
Splenius Capitis Muscle
Sternal Head of Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Zygomaticus Major Muscle
Zygomaticus Minor Muscle
CHEST AND UPPER BACK
Abdominal Head of Pectoralis Major Muscle
Clavicular Head of Pectoralis Major Muscle
Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
Levator Scapulae Muscle
Serratus Anterior Muscle
Sternocostal Head of Pectoralis Major Muscle
Teres Major Muscle
Teres Minor Muscle
Muscle Attachments And Actions
Flexion: decreasing the angle between two bones (bending).
Extension: increasing the angle between two bones (straightening a bend).
The triceps brachii and anconeus are muscles that extend the elbow. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the elbow.
Abduction: moving away from the body’s midline.
Adduction: moving toward the body’s midline.
The gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae, and sartorius are muscles that abduct the hip. The pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and gracilis adduct the hip.
Pronation: rotating the forearm so the palm is facing backward or down.
Supination: rotating the forearm so the palm is facing forward or up.
Elevation: moving a body part up.
Depression: moving a body part down.
Inversion: turning the sole of the foot inward.
Eversion: turning the sole of the foot outward.
Protraction: moving a bone forward without changing the angle.
Retraction: moving a bone backward without changing the angle.
Dorsiflexion: bringing your foot upward toward your shin.
Plantar flexion: depressing your foot.
skeletal muscle names
direction of muscle fiber
number of orgins
location of attachments
increased inorganic phosphate
decreased atp and increased magnesium
state of physical inability to contract
ABDOMEN AND LOWER BACK
External Abdominal Oblique Muscle
Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle
Rectus Abdominis Muscle
muscle shape and movement
In Pennate muscles, the tendon runs through the length of the muscle. Fascicles pull on the tendon at an angle, thus not moving as far at the parallel muscles during a contraction. However, these muscles tend to have relatively more muscle fibers than similarly sized parallel muscles, and thus carry more tension.
The fibers of the circular or sphincter muscles are arranged concentrically around an opening or recess. As the muscle contracts, the opening it circumvents gets smaller. For this reason, these muscles are often found at the entrances and exits of external and internal passageways. Skeletal circular muscles are different from smooth muscle equivalents due to their structure and because they are under voluntary control
Convergent muscles have a common point of attachment, from which the muscle fascicles extend outward, not necessarily in a specific spatial pattern, allowing the muscle to cover a broad surface. These muscles do not tend to exert as much force on their tendons. Muscle fibers can often exert opposing effects during contraction, such as not pulling in the same direction depending on the location of the muscle fiber. Covering a broad surface these fibers allow for more versatile types of movement. Because the fascicles pull on the tendons at an angle, they do not move the tendon as far as their parallel muscle counterparts. Despite this they generate greater tension because they possess a greater amount of muscle fibers than similarly sized parallel muscles.
Parallel muscles are characterized by fascicles that run parallel to one another, and contraction of these muscle groups acts as an extension of the contraction of a single muscle fiber. Most skeletal muscles in the body are parallel muscles; although they can be seen in a variety of shapes such as flat bands, spindle shaped, and some can have large protrusions in their middle known as the belly of the muscle.
Characteristics of muscle tissue
extend or stretch
recoil after stretch
maintain posture and body position
3) excitation contraction coupling
4) cross bridge cycling
2) muscle fiber excitation
1) events of the neuromuscular junction
sliding filament theory
Muscle activation: The motor nerve stimulates an action potential (impulse) to pass down a neuron to the neuromuscular junction. This stimulates the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium into the muscle cell.
Muscle contraction: Calcium floods into the muscle cell binding with troponin allowing actin and myosin to bind. The actin and myosin cross bridges bind and contract using ATP as energy (ATP is an energy compound that all cells use to fuel their activity – this is discussed in greater detail in the energy system folder here at ptdirect).
Recharging: ATP is re-synthesised (re-manufactured) allowing actin and myosin to maintain their strong binding state
Relaxation: Relaxation occurs when stimulation of the nerve stops. Calcium is then pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum breaking the link between actin and myosin. Actin and myosin return to their unbound state causing the muscle to relax. Alternatively relaxation (failure) will also occur when ATP is no longer available.
3 types of muscle tissues
Cardiac muscle contracts the heart to pump blood.
cardiac, straited, involuntary
the smooth muscle tissue that forms organs like the stomach and bladder changes shape to facilitate bodily functions.
visceral, nonstraited, involuntary
Skeletal muscle moves bones and other structures.
skeletal, straited, voluntary
connective tissue sheaths
within the muscle
outside the muscle
mechanical advantage and disadvantage
effort farther than load from fulcrum= lever operates at a mechanical advantage
effort nearer than load to fulcrum= lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage
anaerobic and aerobic
doesn't require oxygen
physiology of muscle contraction
The sliding filament theory is the explanation for how muscles contract to produce force. the actin and myosin filaments within the sarcomeres of muscle fibres bind to create cross-bridges and slide past one another, creating a contraction. The sliding filament theory explains how these cross-bridges are formed and the subsequent contraction of muscle.