Muscular system - Luz Ramirez per.5 (Body movement Terminology (Excursion…
Muscular system - Luz Ramirez per.5
Food moves through the digestive system with a wave-like motion called peristalsis. Muscles in the walls of the hollow organs contract and relax to cause this movement, which pushes food through the esophagus into the stomach.
The upper muscle in the stomach relaxes to allow food to enter, while the lower muscles mix food particles with stomach acid and enzymes.
Smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal or GI tract stretches from the mouth to the anus.
Skeletal muscles help keep the body in the correct position when someone is sitting or standing. This is known as posture.
Good posture relies on strong, flexible muscles. Stiff, weak, or tight muscles contribute to poor posture and misalignment of the body.
Long-term, bad posture leads to joint and muscle pain in the shoulders, back, neck, and elsewhere.
Breathing involves the use of the diaphragm muscle.
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located below the lungs. When the diaphragm contracts, it pushes downward, causing the chest cavity to get bigger. The lungs then fill with air. When the diaphragm muscle relaxes, it pushes air out of the lungs.
When someone wants to breath more deeply, it requires help from other muscles, including those in the abdomen, back, and neck.
Name of muscles
iliopsoas- s a compound muscle which formed by the iliacus and psoas major muscles. It originates from the lumbar vertebral column and hip bone, and has its insertion on the femur.
bicep brachii- movement of the elbow and shoulder
vastus medialis- an extensor muscle located medially in the thigh that extends the knee.
vastus lateralis- is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh
sartorius- is the longest muscle in the entire human body. The sartorius muscle arises from the anterior superior iliac spine on the lateral edge of the hip bone.
gracilis -is one of the muscles found in the groin. It starts at the external point of the ischiopubic ramus and extends down to the upper medial shaft of the tibia, or shinbone. The gracilis is responsible for hip adduction and assists knee flexion
semitendinosus- is a long superficial muscle in the back of the thigh. It lies posteromedially in the thigh, superficial to the semimembranosus.
semimembranosus- is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles.
bicep femoris- is a double-headed muscle located on the back of thigh.The hamstring muscles may be considered extensors of the thigh
Pectoralis major- a thick, fan-shaped muscle contributing to the thoracobrachial motion. It consists of a clavicular part and a sternal part, both converging to a flat tendon that inserts on the humerus
Serratus anterior-is a muscle that originates on the surface of the 1st to 8th ribs at the side of the chest
Sternocleidomastoid- one of the largest and most superficial cervical muscles. The primary actions of the muscle are rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion of the neck
fibularis longus- is a muscle inside the outer area of the human leg, which everts and flexes the ankle.
tibialis anterior- is a muscle in humans that originates in the upper two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot.
soleus -is the plantar flexor muscle of the ankle. It is capable of exerting powerful forces onto the ankle joint. It is located on the back of the lower leg and originates at the posterior aspect of the fibular head and the medial border of the tibial shaft.
trapezius- located in the back and is responsible for moving, rotating, and stabilizing the scapula and extending the head at the neck.
deltoid- The deltoid is a large muscle responsible for lifting the arm and giving the shoulder its range of motion. It is located in the uppermost part of the arm, at the shoulder.
infraspinatus- is a thick triangular muscle that occupies much of the infraspinous fossa of the scapula. Located at the shoulder
Brachioradialis- located forearm that flexes the forearm at the elbow
Flexor carpi radialis- is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and abduct the hand
Muscle Tissue and Major function
smooth muscle tissue- allows for contraction and relaxation with great elasticity.
Skeletal muscle tissue-is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and to maintain posture.
Cardiac muscle is specialized tissue that is found only in the heart. It has characteristics similar to both smooth and skeletal muscle tissue, as well as specialized properties, that allow it to function with fast but sustained contractions, rapid conduction and coordinated movement.
Body movement Terminology
Excursion is the side to side movement of the mandible.
Protraction and retraction are anterior-posterior movements of the scapula or mandible
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are movements at the ankle joint, which is a hinge joint
Flexion and extension are movements that take place within the sagittal plane and involve anterior or posterior movements of the body or limbs
Abduction and adduction motions occur within the coronal plane and involve medial-lateral motions of the limbs, fingers, toes, or thumb.
Circumduction- is the movement of a body region in a circular manner, in which one end of the body region being moved stays relatively stationary while the other end describes a circle.
Rotation- can occur within the vertebral column, at a pivot joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae.
Supination and pronation are movements of the forearm
Inversion and eversion are complex movements that involve the multiple plane joints among the tarsal bones of the posterior foot and thus are not motions that take place at the ankle joint
Depression and elevation are downward and upward movements of the scapula or mandible
structure and organizational levels of the skeletal muscle
The endomysium is the connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers, and they're packed within a fascicle. Myofibrils are organelles within the muscle cell that contain thick and thin myofilaments. The myofilaments are organized into sarcomeres, and they serve as the functional units of skeletal muscle.
physiology of muscle contraction
The sliding filament theory is the explanation for how muscles contract to produce force. the actin and myosin filaments within the sarcomeres of muscle fibres bind to create cross-bridges and slide past one another, creating a contraction. The sliding filament theory explains how these cross-bridges are formed and the subsequent contraction of muscle.
For a contraction to occur there must first be a stimulation of the muscle in the form of an impulse from a motor neuron.The motor end plate is the junction of the motor neurons axon and the muscle fibres it stimulates.When an impulse reaches the muscle fibres of a motor unit, it stimulates a reaction in each sarcomere between the actin and myosin filaments. This reaction results in the start of a contraction and the sliding filament theory.