23 year old patient with tetanus (Downstream Causes (Skeletal Muscular…
23 year old patient with tetanus
Nervous System: sensory integration, transmits signals throughout the body. Motor control.
Dendrites: receive signals from other neurons through neurotransmitters
Axon: carries the signal down the neuron
Axon Terminals: when receiving a signal, release neurotransmitters
Myelin Sheath: make it so the signal goes faster in axon by reducing the amount the signal has to depolarize again.
Axon Hillock: place where signal becomes an action potential on the axon. Summation occurs here.
Sensory: collect info from receptors
Motor: send directions for the right response
Integrating: process the info and predict the right response
Unipolar: one projection off the cell body
Bipolar: two projections off the cell body
Multipolar: more than two projections off the cell body
Muscular System: Moves the body and produces heat
Sarcolemma: plasma membrane that is semipermeable, decides what goes in muscle cells
Myofibril: Contracts the muscle cell through the sliding filament mechanism
Sarcomere: contractile unit of a muscle cell. Made up of two proteins called actin and myosin.
Sarcoplasm: cytoplasm of the muscle cell, has many mitochondria and more than one nucleus. Location of myofibrils
Cardiac Muscle: Striated. Involuntary. Located in walls of the heart. Pumps blood
Smooth Muscle: Non-striated. Involuntary. Located in the walls of organs. Helps movement of substances
Skeletal Muscle: Striated. Voluntary. Located around bones. Creates motion, posture, and heat production
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: Stores calcium
T-Tubules: fold in around the sarcolemma of each myofibril so that the charge can change everywhere to contract
No Summation: One slow firing presynaptic neuron that causes EPSPs far apart in time
Temporal Summation:One rapidly firing presynaptic neuron that causes EPSPs close in time
Spatial Summation: more than one presynaptic neuron fires at the same time. EPSPs are generated at different locations on the neuron.
Excitatory: Neurotransmitters that open channels that depolarize the membrane. Include Voltage-Gated NA+ Channels.
Inhibitory: Neurotransmitters that open channels that hyperpolarize the membrane. Include Voltage-Gated K+ and Cl- Channels
Spores enter the body through a deep cut with low oxygen to breed in. Create a toxin called tetanospasmin which travels to the spine and gets in the way of nerve signals from interneurons to motor neurons. This blocks the signals for relaxation of muscles, causing more muscle contractions.
Tetanus toxin binds to the Peripheral Nervous System and travels alons axons and synapses to reach the Central Nervous System where it gets in presynaptic inhibitory motor nerve endings. There it blocks the two neurotransmitters Glycine and Gamma-aminobutyric acid from being released, which causes the muscles to not get signals to relax and thus muscle contractions result.
Contact with a needle that broke the skin introduced the bacterium
into the body.
Skeletal Muscular System
Involuntary muscle spasms
Stomach muscle spasms
Seizures (jerking, staring)
Fever and sweats
Blood Pressure changes
Fast heart rate