Students with Deafness and Hearing Loss (How Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard…
Students with Deafness and Hearing Loss
Understanding Deafness and Hearing Loss
Development of the Field of Deaf Education
the earliest special education in the United States began when Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet opened the American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb (now the American School for the Deaf) on April 15, 1817, in Hartford, Connecticut
Definitions of Deafness and Hearing Loss
(a) a disability, impairment, disorder, or ailment; (b) a logistical problem, especially in terms of contact with the hearing community; or (c) a social community/culture in its own right
Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section.
Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, [and] that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Additional Information on Definitions
Hearing impairment—An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance, in the most severe case because the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing.
Deafness—Having a hearing impairment which is so severe that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing (with or without amplification) and which adversely affects educational performance.
Hard of hearing—Having a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which adversely affects the student’s educational performance, but which is not included under the definition of “deaf.
a linguistic minority culture within a larger community
Prevalence of Hearing Loss
More than 34 million persons in the United States have a hearing loss.
16.9% of children ages 6 to 19 have some degree of hearing loss, usually slight and often the result of ear infections, but that approximately 1.5 out of every 1,000 school-age children have an educationally significant hearing loss
Hearing Loss and Other Disabilities
approximately 40% of all students who are deaf or hard of hearing have one or more additional, educationally significant disabilities
Causes of Hearing Loss
A loss that is present at birth is referred to as a congenital hearing loss
One that develops after birth is referred to as an acquired, or adventitious, hearing loss.
Prelingual Causes of Hearing Loss
A genetic hearing loss is one caused by the presence of an abnormal gene within one or more chromosomes.
Intrauterine infections, including rubella (i.e., German measles) and herpes simplex virus
Toxemia during pregnancy, a condition that includes dangerously high blood pressure in the mother
Anoxia (i.e., lack of oxygen) before, during, or after birth
Malformation of ear structures
Postlingual Causes of Hearing Loss
Otitis media—ear infections that often are caused when bacteria related to a child’s cold or other illness get inside the ear and produce fluids and mucus that are trapped there; these infections affect three out of four children by the time they are 3 years old
Childhood diseases, including measles, chicken pox, influenza (i.e., flu), mumps
Encephalitis—an inflammation of the brain caused by a virus that, in severe cases, is accompanied by high fever, severe headache, nausea and vomiting, stiff neck, double vision, drowsiness, and disorientation
Repeated exposure to loud noise
Types of Hearing Loss
Conductive hearing loss.
Sensorineural hearing loss.
Mixed hearing loss.
Degree of Hearing Loss
Characteristics of Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Hearing Loss and Child Development
Impact on Communication
Social and Emotional Characteristics
Identifying a Hearing Loss
a specialized series of hearing tests, are to determine if a hearing loss exists and to quantify and qualify hearing in terms of the degree of hearing loss, the type of hearing loss, and the configuration of the hearing loss
Determination of Eligibility
Inability to recognize most words spoken at a conversational level in a quiet room without the use of assistive devices
A significant receptive or expressive language delay
Impairment of speech articulation, voice, or fluency
A significant discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal performance on an intelligence test
Significant delay in the development of reading skills because of language deficit or overall significantly lower than expected academic achievement
Inattention or serious behavior problems related to the hearing loss
How Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing Receive Their Education
Preferred communication needs of the child and family
Severity of hearing loss and potential for using residual hearing
Social, emotional, and cultural needs, including opportunities for peer interactions and communication (U.S.
To help the family understand hearing loss and gain confidence as parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing
To help the young child who is deaf or hard of hearing learn to communicate, to use any available hearing, and to interact socially
To help the young child become a fully participating member of the family (Boys Town National Research Hospital, n.d.)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
General Education Classroom
General Education Classroom with Supplementary Instruction
Separate Class for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Is this student developing age-appropriate communication skills?
Is this student making satisfactory academic progress?
Does this student have friends?
Does this student have access to all components of the educational process, including lunch, recess, and extracurricular social and athletic activities?
Transition and Adulthood
Teach a unit on and reinforce responsible and independent behaviors
Take career field trips
Read books with students about the work that people do
Have students complete interest inventories to help them think about career options
Set up job-shadowing opportunities for students
Provide self-determination and self-advocacy training
Recommended Educational Practices for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Integrated Vocabulary and Concept Development
Experiential Ladder of Learning
humans represent the experience of the world through three modes: (a) symbolic (words, language), (b) iconic (pictures, charts, graphs), and (c) enactive (experiences)
Visual Teaching Strategies
Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
The Voices of Parents
Skilled and caring professionals
Early identification and early intervention
Involvement in extracurricular activities
The value of reading
Trends and Issues Affecting the Field of Deaf Education
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening
an electronic device that directly stimulates the hearing nerve in the cochlea, or the inner ear.
Respect for the language of the student (ASL)
Incorporating Deaf heritage information into teaching
Using ASL to increase understanding of content information
Increasing the complexity and metalinguistic knowledge of ASL students
Developing a strong metalinguistic awareness of English and how it is used in different settings and situations