LATER YEARS OF QUEEN VICTORIA'S REIGN: (political parties had…
LATER YEARS OF QUEEN VICTORIA'S REIGN:
Golden and diamond jubilees occasin of naional celebration and pride
political parties had regrouped into
Liberals(ex Whigs), leader: Gladstone
Conservative(ex Tories), leader: Disraeli
they both won the elecion and trid to solve problems as public health, education and the rights of the trade union.
the ideas of nationalism affect Ireland: in the late 19TH century many protenstant and catholic Irish wanted selfgoverment. Gladstone tried to get Parliament to pass Home Rule trhee times. Irish goerment only after WW1
they tried as all the European States to enlarge their empire. In 1877 Queen Victoria obtained the title of empress of India
an idea of the british empire can be given by the phrase: where the sun never set
there was also a growing sense of the White man burden --> British felt a responsibility to spread their superior way of life to the uncivilised. (idea of educate the uncivilised people of the colonies)
THIRD REFORM ACT: granted the right to vote to all the male householders. With the introduction of the secret ballot the corruption stopped an with the payment of MPs the carrer of politician became available lso to less privileged man.
1871,TRADE UNION ACT: which legalized the trade unions. They were campaigned for wages and welfare but also for eduation
some of them had sussful strikes despite the employers' power and legal opposition.
eventually also a socialist branch of the Liberal party became the Independetn Labuor Party
the movement of the Suffragette which wan to gave to the woman the right of vote gained much publicity
even agriculture started to be mechanised
after the epidemics of Cholera and typhoid, the municipal authorities became organised o provide clean water and sinitation
PUBLIC HEALTH ACT
disease can be prevented but it remained a social concern
victorian cities had gas lightning and rubbish collection, there were many towns buildings. it is also the period of a private retail boom ( shops, theatres, public houses)
industrialisation had made literacy an economic necessity nd the state education system provide it with the ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT of 1870
middle class women gets more rights to their property but were still resctricted to a domestic life
reading became a national leisure pursuit also thanks to the mechanisation of printings that made books and magazine cheaper and easier to get.