FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (Vast majority, FGM carried out by women,…
FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION
What is FGM?
All procedures which involve the partial or total removal of the external genitalia or injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons
The World Health Organisation
Type 1 - Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of clitoris or, very rarely, removal of the prepuce only
Type 2 - Excisiion: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora wirhout excision of the labia majora.
Type 3 - Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening. Formed by the cutting and stitching together of the inner or outer labia. With or without the removal of the clitoris.
Type 4 - Other: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes. Includes, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, cauterising and nicking.
Can happen at any age, from newly born baby-girls in their teens as they prepare for marriage. Girls aged 5-8yrs old deemed at greatest risk. Parents are trying to prevent post trauma by doing it at a younger age.
School holidays have thought to be a high risk - reflected by the recovery period required after type 3 FGM.
Vast majority, FGM carried out by women, female family members and friends assist in holding down the girl.
Cutting is a lucrative business, community midwives, mothers and grandmothers are respected in these communities for being cutters.
There are many cases where girls have been cut without parental knowledge or consent.
Death, Haemorrhage, Severe pain & shock, Urine retention, Infection inc tetanus & HIV, Injury to adjacent tissue, Fracture or dislocation to limbs as a result of restraint, psychological trauma/behavioural changes.
Longer term: Difficulty with urinating, chornic urinary tract infections, difficulties with menstruation, acute/chronic pelvic infections, fertility issues, sexual dysfunction/ptsd/psychological, Significant complications during pregnancy, scaring.
Deep cultural significance, control of female sexuality, perceived religious requirement, false beliefs, sociological, hygiene, aesthetics, control of women
Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003..
. It is an offence for a person to excise, infibulate or otherwise mutilate the whole or any part of a girls labia majora, labia minora, or clitoris either in the UK (Excluding Scotland) or to arrange for a female to be taken abroad for the purpose of FGM.
There are a number of offences which fall within the Act which include:
Carrying out the act itself
Assisting a girl to mutilate her own genitalia
Assisting a non-UK person to mutilate overseas a girls genitalia
Failure to protect a girl from FGM
All of the above include aid, abet, counsel or procure and apply to UK national or habitual UK resident.
Designed to manage high risk cases.The expectation is that the local Authority will make the application in the majority of cases but any individual or organisation can apply with the permission of the court. Orders may require the recipient to perform certain acts or may prohibit certain acts with the intention to reduce the risk of FGM. Breach of the order is a criminal offence.
Change in child's demeanour both psychologically, physically. May not take part in PE @ school. Long time going to the toilet. May be wearing tight skirt/trousers to hold dressing in.
What to do - treat like any other child protection concerns, act quickly, seek advice from safeguarding units and investigation teams. Not usually appropriate to place the child with families or friends within their communities, future risk is identified, a joint approach to child and parents will be undertaken.
Migration of communities across Europe - concentration in Bristol inner city. (Estimated 3000 girls at risk)
Somali community in A&S force area feel they have been unfairly targeted.
Involve safeguarding team