Effective Educational Videos (Element to consider (Cognitive load…
Effective Educational Videos
Use segmenting to chunk
Manages intrinsic load.
Can enhance germane load.
Short videos (6 minutes or less)
Chapters or click-forward questions within videos
Use weeding to eliminate
Reduces extraneous load.
Eliminating complex backgrounds
Match modality by using auditory and visual channels to convey complementary information
Can enhance germane load
Khan Academy–style tutorial videos that illustrate and explain phenomena Narrated animations
Keep each video brief
Increases percentage of each video that students watch; may increase total watch time.May decrease mind wander
Multiple videos for a lesson, each ≤ 6 minutes
Use conversational language
Creates a sense of social partnership between student and instructor, prompting the student to try harder to make sense of the lesson
Placing the student in the lesson by use of “your” rather than “the” during explanations Use of “I” to indicate the narrator’s perspective
Speak relatively quickly and
Increases percentage of each video that students watch.May increase sense of social partnership between student and instructor
Speaking rates in the 185–254 words per minute range Expressions of instructor excitement, such as “I love the next part; the way the feed-forward mechanism works is so elegant,” or “Consider how the cell solves this tricky problem of needing to regulate three genes in sequence;it’s really cool.”
Create and/or package videos to emphasize relevance to the course in which they are used.
Increases percentage of each video that students watch.May increase germane cognitive load by helping students recognize connections
Videos created for the class in which they are going to be used, with instructor narration explaining links to preceding material Explanatory text to situate video in course
Consider these strategies for promoting active learning: Packaging video with interactive questions.
May increase germane cognitive load, improve memory via the testing effect, and improve student self-assessment.
Integrate questions into videos with HapYak or Zaption, Follow short videos with interactive questions within an LMS, or within Google Forms
Use interactive features that
give students control.
Increases student ownership and may increase germane cognitive load
Create “chapters” within a video using HapYak or YouTube Annotate
Use guiding questions
May increase germane cognitive load, reduce extraneous cognitive load, and improve student self-assessment
Senchina (2011) provides guiding questions for videos designed to introduce physiology students to professional ethics related to experimenter–subject interactions, such as the following: “Observe the subject’s behavior and responsiveness during the dehydration period. What changes as the subject becomes dehydrated? What problems does he have? Observe the experimenters’ behavior and responsiveness as dehydration progresses. What do they do differently? Why?”
Make video part of a larger
May increase student motivation, germane cognitive load, and student self-assessment
Package videos with a series of questions or problems that ask students to apply the concepts from the videos. iBiology Education videos (e.g., What Can You Learn with a Light Microscope?) provide one example (iBiology, 2016)
Use signaling to highlight
Key words on screen highlighting important elements
Changes in color or contrast to emphasize organization of
Changes in color or contrast to emphasize relationships
Brief out-of-video text explaining purpose and context for
video (e.g., learning objective for video)
Can reduce extraneous load
Can enhance germane load