Skeletal System Kimberly Sandoval (Movements allowed by synovial …
Skeletal System Kimberly Sandoval
Names of all the Bones
Spine- cervicle , throacic, lumbar, scarum, and cocyx
Chest- sternum, xiphoid, ribs, true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs, and costal cartilages.
ankle- talus, calaaneus
Hands- carpals, metacarpals and phalanges
Pelvic- illum, pubis and ischium
Arm- humerus, radius and ulna
Leg- Femur, tibia, fibula
Skull- cranium, temporal, sphenoid, parietal, occipital, nasal, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, and frontal.
Foot :tarsals, metarsals and phalanges
Types of Bones
Short Bone: Are square or cube shaped . Ex: wrist, ankle, patella,etc.
Flat Bones: Flat, thin bones, often curved. Ex: Skull plates, ribs, sternum,etc.
Long Bones: Are Longer than they are wide . Ex: arms, legs, and phalanges,etc.
Irregular Bone: odd, irregular, shapes. Ex: Pelvis, Vertebrae, scapula, etc.
Anatomy of the Long Bone
Epiphyseal: Compact bone enclosing spongy bone, contains red bone marrow, covered by articular cartilage, site of new bone growth.
Articular Cartilage: smooth, glassy cartilage allows bones to glide past each other. The thin layer hyaline cartilage, smooth surface and deceases friction between us.
Medullary Cavity: cavity hollow area filled w/ yellow bone marrow.
Periosteum: membrane that covers bone, attachment site for muscles, tendons and ligaments.
Diaphysis: Shaft of the compact bone, covered with thin connective tissue called periosteum.
Endosteum : thin membrane, medullary cavity, connective tissue, contains both: osteoblasts (build bone), osteoclasts (destroys bone), and the nutrient arteries)
Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone Tissue:
Lamella connected by canaliculi
Spaces (Lacunae) embedded between rings
Surrounding central canal (haversian canal)
Arranged in rings (concentric lamella)
Location of osteocytes- bone cells
Structural unit of compact bones
Deposit and reabsorb calcium
Network of osteons (haversian system)
Recieve blood from periosteum
Bone Remodeling- Bone is often being made and/or reabsorbed at the pnosteum/endosteum which results in the remodeling of the bone.
Bone Fracture Repair:
Hematoma: blood filled swelling caused by the broken vessels.
Reduction: bone is reset, realigned and immobilized by cast and traction.
Bony Callus- replacement , tougher and more stable than the fibrocartilage callus
Fibrocartilage callus: Forms, temporarily "bridge" or connection between ends of broken bone.
Permanent Patch: remodeling
Fibrous joints: fibrous connective tissue grows between 2 bones.
Cartilaginous joints: cartilage connects articulating bones. Ex: pubic symphysis, intervertebal disks in spine.
The difference of Male and Female Pelvis: Female pelvis is larger wider, and have around the pelvic inlet. Male iliac crests are higher than females, making thier false pelves to look taller and narrow.
Movements allowed by synovial
Extension_ increasing the angle at a joint
Dorsisflexion- felxion of ankle
Ratation- moving apart towards the axis
Plantar flexion- flexion at ankle brings foot farther away from shin
Hyperextension- extend beyond and anatomical position.
Flexion- decreasing the angle at angle at a joint.
Abuduction- moving apart towards the midline.
Sypination- rotation of forearm so that the palm is upward of facing the anterior.
Lateral flexion- bending head, neck, or trunk to the side .
Pronation- rotation of forearm so that the palm is downward of facing posterior
Circumduction- end of part follows a ciruclar path.
Tendontis- inflammation of tendon sheaths
Arthritis- inflammatory of degenerative diseases of joints.
Bursitis- inflammation of bursa usually caused by blow or friction.
Osteoarthritis- probably related to normal aging process, physical trauma, or repetitive motion
Sprain- Ligaments of tendons reinforcing joints are ton or stretched.
Osteoporsis- bone thining disease, makes bone fragile and break easily.
Rheumatoid arthritis- an autoimmune disease , the immune system attacks the joints.
Gouty arthritis- inflammation of joints caused by deposit of urate crystals from the blood.