Ecology of Nonparental Child Care (Types of Curriculum (Tools of the Mind…
Ecology of Nonparental Child Care
Components of Optimal Quality Care
Size of overall group
Specialized training received by caregiver
Poor-quality Childcare is caused by
High caregiver turnover, impacts the child's ability to form a secure attachment.
Low wages, lack of benefits, adverse working conditions
Different state requirements for child-care facilities and teachers.
Macrosystem Influences on Nonparental Child Care
Child care and educational practices have been affected by three macrosystems; political ideology, economics, and science and technology. (pg. 174)
Childcare has been used in the 20th century for the following purposes: social service, enrichment, parent employability, intervention, readiness. (pg. 175).
Nonparental Child Care and Psychological Development
Spitz study (done in 1946) compared infants raised in a foster home with 8 babies per caregiver to infants raised by a mother in jail and found that those raised by their mother developed better than the other children. The other children suffered a delay in growth and mental development.
Bowlby's study (dones in 1966, 1969, 1973) wrote that "any break in the early mother-child relationship could have severe emotional, social, and intellectual consequences" (pg. 177).
Skeels's study (30-year longitudinal study completed in 1966) demonstrated that it is the quality of care that affects children's development, not the relationship of the person who provides it (pg. 178).
Contemporary Studies; after much debate about natural childcare verses nonparental childcare, it is concluded that when infants are in childcare for more than 20 hours per week, the mothers sensitivity to the infant is less than that of mothers who do not use nonparental care. This can affect the infants attachment. (pg. 179)
Nonparental Child Care and Social Development
Studies show that children attending some form of child-care program interact with others better and are more socially competent. They are more self-confident, more outgoing, and less fearful.
Nonparental Child Care and Cognitive Development
Children who attend a quality daycare program perform higher intellectually than children from a similar background who attend a poor-quality daycare.
There are intervention programs for children who are disadvantaged, however, these programs work best when the whole family is involved.
Nonparental Child Care and Socialization Outcomes
In-Home care (privately funded or by relative)
Peer interaction is little, these children scored lowest on assessment of cognitive ability, social understanding, cooperation, friendliness, and independence from mother.
Family Day Care
Peer interaction is varied. These children scored highest on assessments of friendliness, lowest on independence from mother.
Peer interaction is high. These children scored higher on assessments of cognitive ability, social understanding, cooperation, friendliness, and independence from mother.
Types of Curriculum
Teacher-directed curriculum is where the learning activities are planned by the teacher for all the children.
Cognitively Oriented Curriculum is a curriculum that attempts to blend the virtues of purposeful teaching with open-ended, child-initiated activities.
Direct Instruction Curriculum is based on behaviorist principles.
Montessori Curriculum is based on individual self-directed learning with the teacher as the facilitator. Materials provide exercises in daily living, sensory development, and academic development.
Developmental Interaction Curriculum is a curriculum that is individualized in relation to each child's stage of development while providing many opportunities for children to interact with peers and adults.
Tools of the Mind Curriculum is based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning and Gardner's theory of five minds for the future.
The five minds as described by Gardner are the disciplined mind, the synthesizing mind, the creating mind, the respectful mind, and the ethical mind.