English Test 1 (Unit 2 (Grammar (Past modals and phrasal modals obligation…
English Test 1
Past modals and phrasal modals obligation
should have, was supposed to, had to and needed to
all describe obligations in the past, although they have slighty different uses.
should have use the past participle, supposed to use the gerund
Modals with multiple uses:
To express degrees of certainly, use *must (not), can't, could (not), might (not) or may (not).
To express obligation, advice, or opinions, use should (not). Don't use must (not) have for obligations, advice, or opinions about the past.
Also notice how these modals are used in the passive and continuous.
aggravate, avoid, cause, deal with, identify, ignore, run into, solve.
Verbs of belief:
assume, be certain, be positive, be sure, bet, doubt, figure, guess, have a hunch, know for a fact, suppose, suspect
Defining and not-defining relative clauses:
A defining relative clause defines or gives essencial information about a noun.
A not-defining relative clauses gives optional information about a noun and cannot being with the pronoun
, Notice the use of commas.
Order of modifiers:
quality, size, age, type, noun, descriptive phrase.
Connecting contrasting ideas:
You can use these words and phrases to connect contrasting ideias.
despite, in spite of, although, even though, however, nevertheless, on the other hand.
What makes a city?
climate, cost of living, crime rate, cusine, green spaces, hotels, job market, landmarks, neighborhoods, nightlife, shopping, transportation system
Compound terms for towns:
border town, coastal town, college town, industrial town, mountain town, port town, resort town, rural town, tourist town
Verbs followed by gerund:
Use the gerund afer these verbs:
(verb in gerund)
Use the gerund or infinitive after these verbs:
(verb in two forms) ...
Use gerund after these expressions containing prepositions:
(verb in gerund)
Noun Clauses after be:
is optional in noun clauses after be; the prepositions followed by gerunds in the first part of the setences.
ex: the only trouble
BEING... is (that) we don't spend...
the big advantages
HAVING... is (that) she can ...
so am i,
i'm the same way,
so do i,
neither do i.
i'm not like that.
i'd say i'm more...
really? i don't...
that's not true for me.