Geography - Glaciation 2 (4th Form) (Different Types of Moraine (Medial…
Geography - Glaciation 2 (4th Form)
Different Types of Moraine
Medial moraine – When 2 glaciers join together – the lateral moraines join into a medial moraine
Terminal moraine – This marks the furthest extent of the glacier and is produced when the glacier melts.
Lateral moraine – Edge of the glacier – from melting at the sides and leaves a line of material.
Recessional moraine – As the glacier melts, it effectively retreats up the valley. As it does so, it leaves a pile of material.
Ground moraine – This is the material carried at the base of the glacier. As the glacier melts, it leaves some till behind.
When the glacier melts, they are dropped. An erratic will be placed on top of an area of rock that is not the same rock as the erratic.
E.g. limestone erratic on top of granite for example.
These are rocks that are carried in the glacier.
As the glacier loses energy, it drops till. This is because the friction with the ground and till becomes greater than with the ice and the till.
As more ice passes it moulds the till into hills.
Drumlins are small hills made of till.
Crag and Tail
After this, the velocity of the glacier and pressure decrease and till is dropped.
Tail drops away with distance from the crag.
Erosion of the harder rock via plucking
Erosion and deposition form this.
Snowdonia Case Study (Page 80 onwards in textbook)
How humans activity (farming, forestry, settlement) have impacted on physical processes in glaciated upland landscapes.
Advantages and disadvantages of development (water storage and supply, renewable energy, recreation and tourism, conservation) and how they can lead to change in glaciated upland landscapes.
Farming, Forestry and Settlements
Settlement – Building houses and roads has increased the number of impermeable surfaces, this has increased the risk of flooding.
Forestry – Deforestation increases the risk of soil erosion as the roots of trees no longer hold the soil together.
Farming – overgrazing of sheep in the mountains of Snowdonia has compacted the soil and led to increasing erosion of the soil.
Development in Snowdonia
Advantages - HEP – clean electricity, no fossils fuels burnt.
Disadvantages – Pipelines may run over land and this may be unsightly.
Advantages – Provides many jobs – hotels, restaurants etc.
Disadvantages – Traffic congestion, littering, noise for locals
Advantages – Provides safe drinking water to areas of the UK that do not get enough rainfall.
Disadvantages – Very expensive to build dams and involves flooding of some villages.
Advantages – Protects natural vegetation
Disadvantages – Non-native species of plants can be expensive and difficult to clear