Ecology of Parenting (Competitive/ Independent Orientation (Authority:…
Ecology of Parenting
Competitive/ Independent Orientation
Authority: achieved authority is valued and occurs through hard work. Universalism is valued.
Relationships: relationships are compartmentalized. Believe that behavior is governed by the golden rule. A norm is informality, Decisions are made democratically.
Communication: can be direct or independent of context. Can also be indirect and dependent on context.
Displays of Emotion: openly express feelings to others. Some individuals are open with those people with whom they are intimate and closed with all others.
Discipline/Guidance: individuals believe in a rational order in the world where they are agents of action. It is assumed that problems and solutions are the nature of reality; children are socialized to solve problems they encounter. Discipline/guidance aims are to be preventive.
Skills Emphasis: children are encouraged to make their own decisions. Children are expected to maintain clear boundaries between the self and others. Emphasis is placed on individual achievement, self-expression, and personal choice. Competition promotes performance. Competition promotes creativity and productivity. Personal responsibilty is ingrained in the culture.
Macrosystem Influences on Parenting
Authority: Social roles are based on hierarchy. Family structure is patriarchal. Particularism is valued. pg 130
Relationships: Harmony is valued. Family needs are above individual needs. Children are obedience and loyal and expected to take care of elderly parents.
Communication: more indirect than direct. Nonverbal communication used more than verbal.
Display of emotion: some display emotion inwardly and others display them outwardly. Inward emotions rarely shown in public. Outward emotions shown through facial expressions.
Skills Emphasis: learn to get along in the group and become contributing adults. Brotherhood, sharing, spirituality, and personal integrity. Modesty and moderation. Failure is not a concept.
Microsystem Influences on parenting style: Interactions between parent and child.
Parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, over involved)
Self-regulation and prosocial behavior
Family Dynamic and Changes over time
Age and cognitive development
Presence of disability
Parent's life stage
Parents ability to cope with stress.