Resource Management (China case study (• World’s biggest producer of…
China case study
• World’s biggest producer of CO2, responsible for 29% of global carbon emissions.
• Burns more coal than USA, Europe, Japan combined. Coal accounts for about 65% of Chinese energy mix in 2014. Increased car ownership / cheap gasoline are contributing to air pollution. 7/10 most polluted cities in the world are in China. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide released by China’s coal-fired power plants fall as acid rain.
• In 2006, government implemented China Renewable Energy Law: aim : to develop renewable energy resources. According to this plan, by 2020, dependence on coal will fall to 54%. Increase in nuclear power by 1.5%, wind power by 4.5%.
• High levels of pollution in Chinese cities (coal contains high levels of ash and sulphur leading to pollution) led to 2015 Regulations restrict the use of heavily polluting types of coal in urban areas to reduce pollution levels.
• Hydro-electric power (HEP) – Three Gorges Dam – world’s biggest HEP producer in 2012. In 2014 it generated 98.8 billion kWh of electricity. Highly controversial project.
o Cost US$30 billion
o 1.4 million people displaced from homes when built.
o Flooded 632 km2 of habitat (also controls flooding of Yangtze River)
o Environmental impacts – lanslides, silt/sewage buildup, pollution damaging biodiversity
• Since 2001, planning to replace nuclear power with renewable power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
o Following Japan’s Fukushima disaster in 2012, Germany closed 8 nuclear plants and plans to close remaining plants by 2022.
o By 2020, Germany will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40%(compared with 1990 levels) and by 80% by 2050.
• To achieve emissions targets Germany invests in renewable energy.
• Solar power from
o large solar farms such as, Bavaria Solarpark (covers 62 acres and 60,000 photovoltaic panels. Projected to reduce CO2 emissions by 100,000 tonnes over 30 years and by making 215 million kWh clean power over 20 years
o incentives for individuals/organisations to install solar panels on homes and businesses.
• Wind energy production planned of 6500 MW by 2020. Currently replacing old turbines with new , more efficient turbines to increase production. New turbine technology resulted in less opposition by people who recognise the advantage of wind over coal and nuclear fuel: planning barriers changed to allow greater use of wind turbines.
Classifying and using resources
Lithosphere is the earths crust and the mantle
Hydrosphere is all the water on or near the earth. This includes rivers, lakes, oceans and moisture in the air.
Biotic resources are the resources obtained from the biosphere and are capable of reproduction. Examples include birds, animals, plants, fungi.
They can be found in places like Deciduous woodland.
Abiotic resources are resources that are obtained from the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Examples include minerals soil, sunlight, precipitation and fresh water.
Non-renewable resources are resources that cannot be remade, as it takes millions of years for them to form. Examples include coal, oil, natural gas and uranium(Nuclear power)
Renewable resources are resources that are potentially inexhaustible and can naturally replenished in a much shorter time than other sources of energy. Examples of this include: wind, solar and hydroelectric power.
Reasons for increases in natural resource use
dramatic increase in people - mainly in developing countries mainly use non-renewable sources of energy
More people can afford more products so more electricity is needed.
Because of more global trade more energy is needed and so more container ships and planes need to be used.
It has become more accessible to more people for example the cost of flying has fallen significantly.
The living organisms found in an area.
The physical non-living enviroment such as water, wind and oxygen.
Energy that comes from sources that can be reused or replenished and therefore will not run out.
Why places have a lack of water
Most of the locations that have scarce water are at low latitudes and are near the equator
This is because in such places, there is a permanent zone of high pressure. This is due to the Hadley cells and the descending air mases. This means clouds are unlikely to form
Advantages of fracking
2,000,000 jobs, efficient and effective, energy security is cheaper, sustainable energy, could give energy for 70 years on its own, gives access to ore oil and gas, Lower government tax, self dependant countries.
Disadvantages of Fracking
Massive use of water, contamination of water supply, water that comes back out of the ground(produced water) is dumped in streams , earthquakes can be caused e.g. 2.2 magnitude earthquake hit Blackpool, less focus on renewable energy sources, increased water contamination, noise pollution and a large spread of toxins
Energy mix can be defined as the way is which countries source their energy e.g. How much energy comes from coal, how much energy comes from wind power etc.
Water deficit is an area where there is more water lost through evaporation and transpiration than is gained through precipitation
Lose stratification rainforest provides habitats for many animals. Some of which are unique to these locations. Loss of habitat would lead to a loss of animals.
Water Surplus is an area where there is more water gained through precipitation than lost through evaporation/transpiration